The presence of extracranial
lesions was another independent prognostic factor of survival in patients with BM.
As a result, extracranial
meningiomas are tumors that cause diagnostic difficulties from time to time because of their abundant entity in their differential diagnosis.
This shows incidence of transient ischaemic attack higher in patients with intracranial stenosis as compared to extracranial
[3.] Drummond PD, Lance JW Extracranial
vascular changes and the source of pain in migraine headache.
Comparison of potential risks between intracranial and extracranial
vertebral artery dissections.
found 79 cases with extracranial
disease for patients who were 18 years or older, proven by either biopsy or autopsy.
Further imaging of the mass was ordered with an MRI of the brain which showed focal cranial bone marrow infiltration and a left frontoparietal 6 x 2 x 9 cm dominant extracranial
soft tissue lesion (Figure 1) with thickened enhanced dura below this site.
In contrast, our patients all underwent brain MRIs, intracranial and extracranial
MRAs, and full cardiac studies including transthoracic echocardiography and 24-hour Holter monitoring.
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is traditionally considered the gold standard for venous studies, but the invasiveness of the procedure restricts its use to the time of treatment, while in clinical practice Doppler Sonography (DS) has progressively become the first-line exam for extracranial
vessel study due to its noninvasiveness and practical clinical feasibility.
extension was better delineated with clear extension into the orbit, maxillary sinus, and invasion of the right pterygoid, masseter, and temporalis muscles (Figure 1).
Although the JF presents variation in shape, size, height and volume within the different racial and gender groups, it also varies in laterality from its intracranial to extracranial
aspects (Vijisha et al.).