Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA
found in bacteria and are associated with the genes for antibiotic resistance which are often exchanged between bacteria and consequentially, are seen by many to embody a serious threat to global health.
The assay most commonly used for SCID-NBS is real-time PCR to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC), extrachromosomal DNA
byproducts of somatic recombination in T cells (10).
chlorotica without a gene transfer event incorporated into the germ line, including the possibility of extrachromosomal DNA
fragments taken up during feeding and missed in the adult sequencing efforts (Bhattacharya et al., 2013).
So we're delivering extrachromosomal DNA
that has all the 'start' and 'stop' signatures and other information the cell needs to make the appropriate protein, in this case, the missing enzyme."
Such virulent strains contain large plasmids and, therefore, high extrachromosomal DNA
isolation and agarose electrophoresis.
Using an approach that had previously been used to examine rare linear extrachromosomal DNA
species (21), in which DNA size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis was subsequently extracted and analyzed by PCR, we made the surprising finding that a large discrepancy existed in the size of circulatory fetal and maternal DNA species.
In human cells, mitochondria are the only organelles that contain extrachromosomal DNA
. This mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),  a 16 569-bp circular genome, encodes for 13 proteins that are essential for oxidative phosphorylation and thus for ATP production.
These alterations may result from chromosomal point mutations or from the gain or loss of extrachromosomal DNA
such as plasmids or transposons [26, 57, 59].
Most gene therapies are based on plasmids, which are the extrachromosomal DNA
found in bacteria.
Transgenic animals generated by microinjection of DNA solution into the germline syncytium usually contains multicopy repetitive extrachromosomal DNAs
that are silenced in the germline but expressed in the somatic cells.
Homologies between the contiguous and fragmented rRNAs of the two Plasmodium falciparum extrachromosomal DNAs
are limited to core sequences.