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An interesting observation from some of the studies referred above is the fact that certain bacterial proteins, predicted cytoplasmic by consensus, can be found in the extracellular environment of the cell, where they may play alternative functions.
Another feature revealed in the chronic stress groups was the phenomenon of partial degranulation (mast cell activation), as described in previous studies [42, 43], in which the content of granules is only partially released in the extracellular environment.
These ultra-thin protein 'package' the haemoglobin molecules and protect them from exposure to the hostile extracellular environment, while allowing them to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Scientists base such studies on the knowledge that these drugs can manipulate the extracellular environment, expanding constricted vessels in the brain or preventing a toxic concentration of calcium ions from entering neurons.
By coupling the bulk gel with a small peptide derived from the extracellular environment of genuine stem cell niches, and mixing it with a tissue-specific stem cell type as well as the porogen, the team can create a boneforming artificial niche.
"Creating a nanofiber network that enables us to more equally distribute cells and more closely mirror the actual cartilage extracellular environment are important advances in our work and in the field.
There are alternative explanations to the selective release of gene transcripts, however, including an insensitivity of the RT-PCR method to detect very low mRNA concentrations, or differences in mRNA stability in the extracellular environment.
This work is unique because EC-SOD is almost exclusively located in the extracellular environment and thus allows examination of the role of extracellular ROS in SCI.