external hemorrhoid

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an enlarged (varicose) vein in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; called also pile.

Internal hemorrhoids usually are first noticed when minor bleeding occurs with defecation. Pain occurs rarely, unless there is an associated disorder such as an anal fissure, thrombosis, or strangulation of the affected vein. External hemorrhoids produce varying degrees of pain, feelings of pressure, itching, irritation, and a palpable mass. Bleeding occurs only if the external hemorrhoid is injured or ulcerated and begins to break down.

Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins of the anus. Prolonged sitting, constipation, and hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass can lead to straining and sitting at stool for long periods of time, all of which add pressure on the anal veins. Failure to follow through on the urge to defecate can also lead to hemorrhoids. In women, probably the single most common cause is pregnancy.

External hemorrhoids can be treated by local applications of cold and an astringent cream, by sitz baths, and by avoidance of constipation. Internal hemorrhoids may require sclerosing or cryosurgery to obliterate the affected tissue. More advanced, chronic hemorrhoids usually must be removed surgically by ligation and excision (hemorrhoidectomy) or by barron ligation.
Types of hemorrhoids.
external hemorrhoid one distal to the pectinate line.
internal hemorrhoid one originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed sufficiently and for a long enough time for its blood supply to become occluded by the constricting action of the anal sphincter.

external hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located at or distal to the pectinate line (dentate margin), covered by anodermal epithelium or skin and extremely sensitive to most stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.
See also: hemorrhoid
References in periodicals archive ?
Most episodes of acute thrombosed external hemorrhoids improve spontaneously and therefore can be treated with symptomatic measures, including anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, and stool softeners.
26) Residual hemorrhoidal tissue following an episode of acute thrombosis of external hemorrhoids also may cause symptoms, especially pruritus.
Cryosurgery freezes external hemorrhoids with liquid nitrogen.
External hemorrhoids originate below the dentate line and become acutely painful with thrombosis.
Few studies have evaluated the best treatment for thrombosed external hemorrhoids.
Another retrospective analysis of 340 patients who underwent outpatient excision of thrombosed external hemorrhoids under local anesthesia reported a low recurrence rate of 6.
The American Gastroenterological Association recommends excision of symptomatic thrombosed external hemorrhoids that present early.
Excision of thrombosed external hemorrhoids under local anesthesia: a retrospective evaluation of 340 patients.
07 external hemorrhoids, any method 46937 Cryosurgery of rectal tumor, 5.
54 for the destruction of external hemorrhoids (46935), $112.