(3,7) Therefore, external coaptation currently is the recommended treatment for tibiotarsal fractures in birds with body weights less than 300 g.
To our knowledge, no systematic evaluation of the outcome of tibiotarsal fractures in birds treated with external coaptation has been reported.
Patients were excluded from the study if they were juveniles that had not fledged by the time of the fracture diagnosis, had repair without a tape splint for external coaptation, or were lost to follow-up.
Prognosis for recovery was poor because of several factors: the contraindication for internal fixation based on thin femoral cortices with subjectively poor radiodensity on radiographs, a lack of documented techniques for external coaptation of bilateral femoral fractures, and concerns regarding the ability to adequately maintain the bird during a long convalescent period.
In this report, we describe an external coaptation device that allowed for the nonsurgical stabilization of bilateral pathologic femoral fractures in an egg-laying conure.
(2,4,6-17) Because both internal and external fixation involve placing hardware in bone, external coaptation may be the only option other than euthanasia for pathologic fractures.
(5) For minimally displaced fractures of the ulna when the radius is intact, external coaptation with a figure-8 bandage could be a less complex and less costly method of management entailing minimal iatrogenic trauma to the soft tissue.
Radioulnar synostosis can occur both as a postoperative complication or when external coaptation is used as the sole form of stabilization.
In this case, excessive motion at the fracture site, resulting from the inability of the external coaptation to maintain fragment stability, resulted in delayed union.
Achievement of optimal alignment necessitates touching bone fragments, and the most rigid fixation involves direct application of plates and interlocking nails to the bone; however, minimization of soft tissue trauma precludes incising the skin (ie, external coaptation).
(3-8) External coaptation, arthrodesis, and transarticular external skeletal fixation result in temporary or permanent immobilization of joints.
Thus, stifle and intertarsal joints are commonly immobilized when injuries are treated with external coaptation, temporary transarticular external skeletal fixation, or arthrodesis.