Described in the literature as far back as the 1950s, vaginoscopy has its roots in the pediatric/adolescent population, where it was used for the removal of foreign bodies and evaluation of the vagina and external cervical os.
I then gently pull back the scope and manipulate it posteriorly to visualize the external cervical os anteriorly.
It is considered complete when it extends to the external cervical os
A McDonald cerclage was performed with merselene tape under general anesthetic at the level of the internal cervical OS (as described by McDonalds), (16) and total external cervical OS occlusion was performed with nylon 2/0 or 3/0 ethicon suture on a curved needle between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation.
The cervical occlusion was placed transversely along the external cervical OS below the McDonalds suture to occlude external cervical OS using the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix with the nylon suture, (Fig.
Cervical length was determined by the simultaneous visualisation of the internal and external cervical os
and their measurement across the endocervical channel.
The distance between the external cervical os
and the leading edge of the gestational sac ranged from 7 to 25 mm.
The Missouri bill is unique in that it defines a "partially born" child as one in which "the head in a cephalic presentation, or any part of the torso above the navel in a breech presentation, is outside the mother's external cervical os
5 months later, with 2months amenorrhea, diagnosed as pregnancy with expulsion of IUCD, as there was no thread seen through external cervical os.
Expulsion defined as visible protrusion of the stem of IUD through the external cervical os.
Luigi Selvaggi in Italy were the first, however, to describe the utilization of a vaginoscopic approach to office hysteroscopy for evaluating the endocervical canal and uterine cavity in addition to the vagina and external cervical os
The Missouri bill is unique in that it defines a "partially born" infant as one in which "the head in a cephalic presentation, or any part of the torso above the navel in a breech presentation, is outside the mother's external cervical os