Our analysis helps to illuminate the potential magnitude and timing of ecosystem responses, but we advise caution when interpreting results for future exposure pathways
. Our approach may have underestimated contributions from Asia, which increased Hg emissions approximately 70% between 1990 and 2000 (Pacyna et al.
The GIS and VGE data may provide, in addition to levels of uranium and its decay products in water, soil, air and biota, a detailed mapping of uranium exposure pathways
where diagonal matrix SF [member of] [R.sup.hxh] contains in its main diagonal the severity factors (DALY/d per case/d) for health effects h with zeros elsewhere, and multiplies matrix DRF [member of] [R.sup.hxe] of dose-response slope factors (cases/d per [kg.sub.intake]/d) for health effects h via exposure pathways
The modeled exposure pathway
contribution analyses revealed that for children older than 1 y, the soil/dust ingestion and food ingestion pathways contributed more to BLL than drinking water, and the air pathway contributed the least with a small amount.
Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway
for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.
However, the contribution of each PBDE exposure pathway
has not yet been fully elucidated and, in addition, varies with age and geography (Besis and Samara 2012; Jones-Otazo et al.
(4) In this issue of EHP, researchers confirm experimentally in humans that dermal uptake from indoor air may be a meaningful exposure pathway
for some phthalates.
The indoor air of houses is the primary exposure pathway
for radon and the main public-health risk, contributing to about 20,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the United States.
We consider the residential pesticide use exposure pathway
to be that which occurs from the application of pesticides to the home, lawn, or garden.
Since some contamination still remains at the site, a significant change in site conditions or land use could create a new exposure pathway
. Any future property owner therefore must maintain site conditions as specified.
The dominant exposure pathway
is incidental ingestion of lead-rich soil and dust particles by hand-mouth transmission and of inhaled dust particles cleared from the respiratory tract.
Identification of exposure pathways
for children can facilitate interventions to reduce the risk of exposure.