exposure

(redirected from exposure error)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Encyclopedia.

exposure

 [eks-po´zhur]
1. the act of laying open, as surgical exposure.
2. the condition of being subjected to something, as to infectious agents or extremes of weather or radiation, which may have a harmful effect.
3. in radiology, a measure of the amount of ionizing radiation at the surface of the irradiated object, such as a person's body; calculated by multiplying milliamperage times exposure time in seconds, expressed in units of milliampere seconds (mAs). See also x-rays.
x-ray exposure see exposure (def. 3).

ex·po·sure

(eks-pō'zhūr),
1. A condition of displaying, revealing, exhibiting, or making accessible.
2. In dentistry, loss of hard tooth structure covering the dental pulp due to caries, dental instrumentation, or trauma.
3. Proximity or contact with a source of a disease agent in such a manner that effective transmission of the agent or harmful effects of the agent may occur.
4. The amount of a factor to which a group or individual was exposed; in contrast to the dosage, the amount that enters or interacts with the organism.
Epidemiology A state of contact or close proximity to a chemical, pathogen, radioisotope or other other substance by ingesting, breathing, or direct contact—e.g., on skin or eyes; exposure may be short term—acute—or long term—chronic

Imaging An image, such as an anteroposterior exposure of the chest
Medical liability The degree of malpractice risk borne by a health care provider while performing a particular medical service
Nuclear physics The amount of ionising radiation in air from X-rays or gamma rays at a specific point in space, defined as the total charge of ions divided by the mass that would completely stop the radiation; the SI unit for exposure is coulomb per kg—C/kg; in human terms, exposure refers to the amount of ionizing radiation to which a person has been subjected

exposure

Epidemiology A state of contact or close proximity to a chemical, pathogen, radioisotope or other other substance by swallowing, breathing, or direct contact–eg, on skin or eyes; exposure may be short term–acute or long term–chronic. See Acute exposure, Athlete exposure, Chronic exposure, Intermediate exposure, Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, Perinatal substance exposure Imaging An image, as an AP exposure of the chest Medical liability A general term for the degree of malpractice risk borne by a health care provider while performing a particular medical service See Risk management.

ex·po·sure

(eks-pō'zhŭr)
1. Contact of a compound with an epithelial barrier such as the skin, eyes, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract before absorption occurs.
See also: exposed dose, external dose
2. Physical effects caused by harsh weather.
3. Placing an object or person in a given environmental state.

exposure

  1. the aspect of a particular location with respect to the points of the compass, for example, some garden plants, such as the peach tree in England, prefer a southern exposure.
  2. a rock outcrop.
  3. a soil section.

ex·po·sure

(eks-pō'zhŭr)
1. In dentistry, loss of hard tooth structure covering the dental pulp due to caries, dental instrumentation, or trauma.
2. A condition of displaying, revealing, exhibiting, or making accessible.
3. Proximity to contact with a source of a disease agent in such a manner that effective transmission of the agent or harmful effects of the agent may occur.

Patient discussion about exposure

Q. I feel some effects due to less exposure to sunlight. I heard that UV lighting is effective for depression. I’m living in northwest pacific; the summers are very nice but way to short. I feel some effects due to less exposure to sunlight. I have been told that sun light helps the production of the chemical in the brain that we are deficient of. If true, are there certain types of fixtures and/or bulbs that I should try.

A. Its also called seasonal affective disorder:
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/disorder

(SAD) depression with fatigue, lethargy, oversleeping, overeating, and carbohydrate craving recurring cyclically during specific seasons, most commonly the winter months.

I would about UV. Perhaps you should get a fluorescent light fixture for the area where you spend the most time each day and turn it on.

The web sites that sell the commercial light boxes want several hundred dollars or even more. (Seems like rip off to me.)
The web page at
http://www.ncpamd.com/seasonal.htm

says "studies suggest that regular fluorescent lights will work as well. UV (ultraviolet) light can damage eyes and skin, so it must be filtered out. It is best to buy a commercially built light box to be sure of the exact amount of light and to be sure that there are no isolated "hot spots" which could damage eyes. Many people still prefer full spectrum (minus UV) light because it i

Q. how do i keep my baby as minimal as passable exposed to the out side world threats? like decease and other things

A. It might seem like a caring attitude, but I'm not sure it's neither possible nor absolutely necessary - babies do get sick, usually only mildly and transiently, so trying to prevent all the cases of fever would be quite impossible.

What you can do, is to maintain the regular infant welfare visits, give him or her the necessary vaccinations (one of the most important things you can do for your child), make sure your baby eats well, regarding both the amount and type of foods, and generally keep a good hygiene: make sure to wash hands after you go to the toilet and before you handle your baby, don't expose him or her to other sick infants etc.

However, all this is just a general advice - if you have specific question you may want to consult your doctor (e.g. a pediatrician).

Take care,

More discussions about exposure
References in periodicals archive ?
As expected, total exposure error ([[delta].sub.total]) for regional pollutants was made up mostly of exposure error due to human exposure factors (e.g., time-activity patterns, AER in the home), with a small contribution from unmeasured spatial variability.
In a multi-pollutant model, the absolute magnitude of this bias will depend on the variance of the exposure error, the correlation between exposure estimates, and the correlation between exposure errors.
In a bipollutant model, we may not be concerned with bias if two regional pollutants are included because of the near-zero ([[delta].sub.spatial]) and very low ([[delta].sub.population] and [[delta].sub.total]) variance of exposure error for regional pollutants (Figure 3A, Table 1).
In addition to the potential for bias, the results presented here show that spatial variability is present in the exposure error for local pollutants and in the between-pollutant correlations of exposure error for local-local pollutant pairs.
1996) occurs when two correlated pollutants are measured with differential exposure error, and the effect of the pollutant measured with more error is transferred to the pollutant measured with less error.
Thus, we believe that our conclusions about the spatial variability of exposure error being present, and the general likelihood of bias due to measurement error for certain pollutants, are likely to apply across studies.
In addition to the role of exposure error, additional factors must be considered as researchers further investigate epidemiologic analyses that include multiple pollutants.
We used empirical relationships to show the potential for bias (particularly effect attenuation) in epidemiologic model coefficients for bipollutant models [particularly for local pollutants (CO, NOx, and EC)] due to the presence of variance in the exposure error and correlation between pollutants and their errors.
Relationships between the three types of exposure error. (4) Normalized exposure error for local and regional pollutants (see Supplemental Material, Figure S3A, for full extent of data and outliers).
Variance of exposure error. (A) Variance of normalized exposure error ([delta]) for local and regional pollutants (see Supplemental Material, Figure S4, for full extent of data and outliers).
We posited a relative risk model in which an individual's hazard of death on a given day is expressed as a function of his or her personal exposure, which is decomposed to highlight three types of exposure errors. We then aggregated the model to produce the model for the expected total deaths in a population used in most time-series analyses.
For tractability and clarity, we conducted a first-order analysis of exposure errors and ignored possible second- and higher order effects in which daily fluctuations in the variance of personal exposures across a population or in the covariations among the measurement errors could introduce additional biases.