exogenous ochronosis

ex·og·e·nous o·chron·o·sis

pigmentation of the skin of the face and elsewhere from prolonged topical exposure to hydroquinone-containing bleaching creams.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, drug administration has been associated with cartilage pigmentation, as longterm use of levodopa and methyldopa can cause exogenous ochronosis [5, 6].
Exclusion Criteria: Patients with exogenous ochronosis and males were excluded from the study.
Monitor patients for development of exogenous ochronosis, a rare but important adverse effect, Dr.
Localized exogenous ochronosis (blue-black hyper pigmentation) of the face developed in a fifty year-old black woman who had used a proprietary bleaching cream containing 2% hydroquinone up to six times daily for about two and half years.
25) Exogenous ochronosis is a localized, blue-black hyperpigmentation in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin that can be induced by a number of different chemicals, including hydroquinone.
As indicated earlier, in 1975, the first medical report linking hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching chemicals to irreversible skin damage, exogenous ochronosis, was published by G.
32) The result of this research was that 68 patients (35 percent of the total 195 patients) had exogenous ochronosis.
1990) -- all of whom have linked the use of hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching agents to a permanent skin damage, exogenous ochronosis -- the American, Canadian and European medical communities, to my knowledge, have not undertaken sustained research on the health risks associated with the use of over-the-counter hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching agents.
Even though, to the best of my knowledge, there has never been a credible published research finding which has made a causal link between genetic predisposition and the chance of getting exogenous ochronosis with hydroquinone, medical literature on the issue published in the United States has often suggested a racially-based genetic link between skin-bleaching and exogenous ochronosis.
In addition irritant or allergic contact dermatitis exogenous ochronosis and confetti-like depigmentation are unacceptable effects with topical bleaching agents.
There is no risk of exogenous ochronosis which can be associated with higher concentration of hydroquinone.