25) Exogenous ochronosis is a localized, blue-black hyperpigmentation in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin that can be induced by a number of different chemicals, including hydroquinone.
As indicated earlier, in 1975, the first medical report linking hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching chemicals to irreversible skin damage, exogenous ochronosis, was published by G.
32) The result of this research was that 68 patients (35 percent of the total 195 patients) had exogenous ochronosis.
1990) -- all of whom have linked the use of hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching agents to a permanent skin damage, exogenous ochronosis -- the American, Canadian and European medical communities, to my knowledge, have not undertaken sustained research on the health risks associated with the use of over-the-counter hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching agents.
Even though, to the best of my knowledge, there has never been a credible published research finding which has made a causal link between genetic predisposition and the chance of getting exogenous ochronosis with hydroquinone, medical literature on the issue published in the United States has often suggested a racially-based genetic link between skin-bleaching and exogenous ochronosis.
To back up my claim I have selected three articles on the topic of skin-bleaching and exogenous ochronosis published in three different but comparable professional journals in the field of dermatology.
Second, to make the case for their preferred alternative explanation, that there is a link between black genetic predisposition and getting exogenous ochronosis, the authors have denied a link between carcinogenic effects associated with the use of hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching agents and getting exogenous ochronosis by saying that, "Despite the widespread use of similar hydroquinone bleaching creams in the United States, there has been only one previously published report of a similar reaction occurring in this country.
If these deposits do represent exogenous ochronosis, the case presented here is even more unusual because, to the best of my knowledge, this entity has not been described in whites.
It concerns a Mexican-American woman who had suffered from a severe case of exogenous ochronosis after using over-the-counter 2 percent hydroquinone skin-bleaching cream for a period of six months.
As a result, the authors have used this woman's negative experience with hydroquinone to make a causal link between the use of hydroquinone based skin-bleaching agents and a supposed black genetic predisposition to getting exogenous ochronosis.
Exogenous ochronosis, or hyperpigmentation resembling ochronosis, is a syndrome of cutaneous pigment deposition associated with the topical application of various agents including hydroquinone, phenol, resorcinol, and picric acid, as well as both parenteral and intramuscular antimalarial drugs.