He listed kidney and liver diseases, skin cancer, skin thinning, cataract and exogenous ochronosis
, popularly known in the local parlance as 'Nensuoben', as some of the effects of these creams and products.
Although the relationship between exogenous ochronosis
and the topical use of hydroguinone is well reported in literature, to the best of our knowledge, no cases have been reported on the development of ochronosis in association with the systemic use of hydroxychloroguine (2).
Constant use is associated with exogenous ochronosis
.8 Reductions in lesion size, darkness, and severity occurred as early as 4 weeks after treatment and remain significantly reduced throughout the study.9 It is effective in twice daily applications and should be applied to the entire face because bull's-eye areas of discoloration can develop from localized application.10
Among depigmented population 55% presented stretch marks and 25% for exogenous ochronosis
In addition, drug administration has been associated with cartilage pigmentation, as longterm use of levodopa and methyldopa can cause exogenous ochronosis
Exclusion Criteria: Patients with exogenous ochronosis
and males were excluded from the study.
Hidroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis
: a report of four cases and usefulness of dermoscopy.
Monitor patients for development of exogenous ochronosis
, a rare but important adverse effect, Dr.
Localized exogenous ochronosis
(blue-black hyper pigmentation) of the face developed in a fifty year-old black woman who had used a proprietary bleaching cream containing 2% hydroquinone up to six times daily for about two and half years.
Findlay and his colleagues published an article linking the use of hydroquinone-based skin-bleaching creams used by 35 South African black women to an irreversible skin condition called exogenous ochronosis
. (25) Exogenous ochronosis
is a localized, blue-black hyperpigmentation in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin that can be induced by a number of different chemicals, including hydroquinone.
In addition irritant or allergic contact dermatitis exogenous ochronosis
and confetti-like depigmentation are unacceptable effects with topical bleaching agents.
There is no risk of exogenous ochronosis
which can be associated with higher concentration of hydroquinone.11 Up to 10% of patients report itching, burning, scaling which may last 4 weeks.