Hoffman, "IFN-[gamma] inhibits development of Plasmodium berghei exoerythrocytic
stages in hepatocytes by an L-arginine-dependent effector mechanism," Journal of Immunology, vol.
falciparum. The risk of fatal infection is increased when the patient is asplenic. Since there is no exoerythrocytic
stage associated with transfusion-transmitted malaria, the disease may be treated with therapy that kills the erythrocytic parasites.[3-6]
microti parasites, which are not known to have an exoerythrocytic
tissue phase, has not been described, nor has the occurrence of 3 consecutive routes of transmission (vector, transfusion, and transplantation), which has been reported for West Nile virus (23,24).
Klinkert, "The proteasome inhibitor MLN-273 blocks exoerythrocytic
and erythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites," Parasitology, vol.
Sinnis, "Extrahepatic exoerythrocytic
forms of rodent malaria parasites at the site of inoculation: clearance after immunization, susceptibility to primaquine, and contribution to blood-stage infection," Infection and Immunity, vol.
AZT might interfere with transmission by exoerythrocytic
inhibition of parasite liver stages in humans and mice (3) and by interference with ookinete and sporozoite production in mosquitoes (4).