exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
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ex·o·crine pan·cre·at·ic in·suf·fi·cien·cy[MIM*260450]
lack of exocrine secretions of pancreas, due to destruction of acini, usually by chronic pancreatitis; lack of digestive enzymes from pancreas results in diarrhea, usually fatty (steatorrhea).
occurs as a complication of acute pancreatitis or subsequent to pancreatic surgery due to bacterial contamination but is most common as an extension from a leaking gastric ulcer.
pancreatic acinar atrophy
the islets of Langerhans remain normal but acinar tissue atrophies and exocrine function is compromised. Seen most commonly in large breeds of dogs, particularly German shepherd dogs. Clinical signs are related to the exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (see below).
acute pancreatic necrosis
see acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.
alpha cells cells in the islet of Langerhans which secrete glucagon.
includes acinar hypoplasia and congenital Islet of langerhans aplasia.
beta cells comprise the majority of pancreatic islet cell population; secrete insulin.
a diverticulum in the pancreatic duct like a gallbladder in the bile duct. Seen in some cats.
cells in the islet of Langerhans with no known function.
small concretions, 4 to 5 mm diameter, in the pancreatic ducts, caused by chronic inflammation. Seen, usually in large numbers, in cattle.
anomalous obstructions of ducts, often associated with similar cysts in kidneys and bile ducts.
pancreatic delta cells
cells in the islet of Langerhans; known to secrete somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.
one of the two excretory ducts of the pancreas. Depending on the species, it may unite with the common bile duct before entering the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. Absent from the pig and ox which only have an accessory pancreatic duct (developed from the dorsal primordium) which opens on the minor duodenal papilla. See also bile duct.
pancreatic duct obstruction
congenitally by agenesis of the duct, by pancreatic lithiasis or inflammation; causes initial distention followed by atrophy of acinar tissue.
pancreatic ectopic tissue
small masses of pancreatic exocrine or endocrine tissue found occasionally in the wall of the stomach or intestines and in the gallbladder; presumed to be functional.
the exocrine secretion into the intestine includes amylase, endo- and exopeptidases, and lipase. The endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, the exopeptidases are the carboxypeptidases A and B.
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes, usually due to loss of acinar tissue from idiopathic atrophy or acute or chronic inflammation, causes maldigestion and malabsorption with diarrhea, steatorrhea and weight loss.
a sequel to pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, zinc poisoning.
a gastrin-producing tumor arising from the delta cells of the pancreatic islets that causes hypergastrinemia, hypersecretion of gastric acid and ulceration of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Occurs rarely in dogs. See also zollinger-ellison syndrome.
physiological response to diets high in protein and energy.
islets of cells scattered through the pancreas; contain alpha, beta, C and D cells.
enzyme released from the exocrine pancreas; catalyzes the hydrolysis of dietary lipids in the presence of bile salts. See also lipase.
see pancreatic calculus (above).
pancreatic nodular hyperplasia
hard, pale elevations on the surface of the gland; involve only the exocrine tissue; common in old cats and dogs; cause unknown; no discernible effect on patient.
secreted by the pancreas into the blood but has no apparent function.
pancreatic trypsin inhibitor
see trypsin inhibitor.