Mantle: The mantle lobes (Figure 6a) are usually free, except posteriorly where they are joined by their inner folds separating the inhalant from the exhalent aperture.
In the posterior region, between the inner and middle folds, typically reduced in freshwater mussels, a black pigmentation delimits the inhalant and exhalent apertures.
2005) have described an alternative nonintrusive, but technically demanding method for estimating feeding rates of some species of active suspension-feeders in the field, including bivalves, by sampling inhalant and exhalent
water masses using fairly precise techniques under water using SCUBA.
A strong exhalent
water current was observed in animals acclimated to cold (5-7 [degrees]C) seawater.
The effects of current speed on exhalent
siphon area and shell gape in blue mussels under constant seston regimes.
was inserted through the shell posterior to the exhalent
area of each branchial chamber to monitor water salinity.
In the follow-up experiment to determine the possible source of this uncontrolled fertilization, it was found that a proportion of the eggs (varying between 30% and 95%) collected directly from the openings of exhalent
siphons had already been fertilized.
X 101 mm long; AEI North America) was attached to a 150 W halogen fiberoptic light source and inserted through the exhalent
aperture into the suprabranchial chamber.
Movements of the cephalic and epipodial tentacles, rotations of the shell, and the exhalent
water current all produced fluctuations in oxygen concentrations at fixed points within the DBL.
Membranipora membranacea zooids spawn spermatozeugmata through the two distomedial tentacles tail ends first into the exhalent
feeding current of the colony.
2005) registered two peaks in exhalent
opening diameter of M.
1995), and probably detect clams by following plumes from exhalent
siphons, and/or coming in contact with siphons or siphon holes while probing sediment with appendages (Dare & Edwards 1981).