(17) comparing HA- and CA-MRSA in hospital isolates in China, while the exfoliatin b (etb) gene predominated among HA-MRSA isolates.
All isolates were characterized for SCCmec types (I-V) and subtype of SCCmecIV (IVa, IVb, IVc and IVd), (4) agr polymorphism (I-IV), (5) and for the presence of 14 virulence genes, including nine enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg,seh, sei,sej), two exfoliatins (eta and etb), the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), and icaA.
Bullous impetigo (A), caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus can present with vesicles and bullae due to staphylococcal exfoliative toxins (exfoliatin
A-D) which cause separation at the superficial epidermal level.
Bark of three year old twigs rough, exfoliatin
We used PCR to detect the presence of the PVL- and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1--encoding genes (lukS-lukF PV and tst, respectively), exfoliatin
A--and B--encoding genes (eta and etb, respectively) (7), and enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser) as described by Omoe et al.
Multiplex PCR was used to test for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and exfoliatin A and B genes (6).
Genes encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (n = 4) and exfoliatin A (n = 3) were detected in 7 MSSA isolates.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is responsible for severe infections related to carriage of exotoxins such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), or exfoliatin A (1).
Presence of type V cassette, TSST-1, and exfoliatin toxins was assessed by using specific oligonucleotides (sequences are available at www.genomic.ch/sup6.php).
Sequencing also found no genes encoding superantigens (9 enterotoxins and tst), exfoliatins
, or Panton-Valentine leukocidin.
Comparison of the prevalence of genes coding for enterotoxins, exfoliatins
, panton-valentine leukocidin and tsst-1 between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at the University Hospital in Olomouc.
aureus infections, are in relation with bacterial surface complements containing connected matrix molecules (e.g., klamping factor, fibronectin binding protein) recognising various surface complements (e.g., capsular polysaccharide and protein A) and extracellular proteins (e.g., coagulase, hemolysis [a (Hla), b, g (HLG), d], enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TST), exfoliatins
and PVL) (Tomita and Kamio, 1997; Archer, 1998).