, Clinical features, proposed diagnostic criteria, epidemiology and approaches to treatment.
Researchers have documented excoriation
occurrence rates in 2% of dermatology patients, 11.8% of adolescent psychiatric inpatients, and approximately 2%-9% of college students in the U.S., Germany, Pakistan, and Turkey (Bohne, Wilhelm, Keuthen, Baer, & Jenike, 2012; Galikusu, Kucukgoncu, Tecer, & Bestepe, 2012; Grant et al., 2007; Greisemer, 1978; Odlaug et al., 2013; Siddiqui, Naeem, Naqvi, & Ahmed, 2012).
SP disorder (SPD), also known as neurotic/psychogenic excoriation
, involves pathological SP and dermatotillomania, which is characterized by recurrent and excessive skin picking or scratching, and this disorder has been recently introduced to The Fifth Edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an obsessive-compulsive-related disorder (2).
The lesions usually have eroded or ulcerated components secondary to repeated excoriation
, which can eventually lead to scarring and changes in pigmentation.
The skin lesions may vary from superficial erosions or excoriations
to deep necrosis, ulceration and scars.
The most common signs and symptoms of chronic hepatitis, which may show no symptoms for many years, include an enlarged liver and spleen, jaundice, muscle wasting, excoriations
(the result of scratching), ascites (swelling of the abdomen) and swelling of the ankles.
Even if you don't find visible excoriations
, "microscopic damage to the barrier layer is always present," Dr.
McWorld is largely given over to excoriations
of McDonald's, not because that corporation fails to meet the demands of consumers in America and throughout the world but precisely because it does.
Michael Tanner, for example, famed for his Savanarola-like excoriations
of the welfare poor, now serves as the Cato Institute's point man on Social Security privatization.
Certainly, Zuczek sensibly argues that such excoriations
helped splinter Republicans and unify Democrats; but were the accusations accurate?
Xerotic scaling and excoriations
were present on the bilateral upper arms, lower legs, and lower back.
The authors referred to the high proportion of patients in both groups taking psychotropic medications in the study, a finding that was "even more striking" since the study excluded patients who had conditions known to be associated with psychopathology, such as vitiligo, psoriasis, and neurotic excoriations