Abbreviations: AMPA-R: AMPA-type glutamate receptor; APP: amyloid precursor protein; CaMKII: Ca2D/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; DISC1: Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1; ENU: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; EPSP: excitatory postsynaptic potential
; ERP: event-related potential; IPSP: inhibitory postsynaptic potential; NMDA-R: N-methyl D-aspartate receptor; P30: postnatal day 30; P60: postnatal day 60; PAK: p21-activated kinase; PCP: phencyclidine; PFC: prefrontal cortex; PPI: prepulse inhibition; PSD: postsynaptic density; shRNA: short hairpin RNA; SZ: schizophrenia; VAMP2: vesicle associated membrane protein 2.
Extracellular recordings were then performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic potential
in the hippocampal slices.
with [E.sub.i] = [E.sub.i](t), t [greater than or equal to] 0 and [I.sub.j] = [I.sub.j](t), t [greater than or equal to] 0 as Poisson processes with rates [[lambda].sub.E,i](t) and [[lambda].sub.I,j](t), a > 0 and b > 0 being the magnitude of each excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP); a cell receives excitatory postsynaptic potentials
(EPSPs) at p synapses and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) at q inhibitory synapses.
This was shown by impaired stimulus-response relationship for the slope of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential
(fEPSP) in NL1 knockout (KO) mice.
AMP A and NMDA are glutamate type receptors and are responsible for the induction of [Ca.sup.+] along with some other cations which results in the rise of excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP), whereas GABA's are mainly responsible for the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
The energy waveforms of an excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively.
Synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminals release their contents continuously, even at rest, into the synaptic cleft (quantal release) that contributes to the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potential
(mEPSP) recorded from the neuronal soma (Figure 1(a)).
The nAChR responds to neurotransmitter stimulation by allowing rapid influx of sodium, producing an excitatory postsynaptic potential
. The nAChR is the second messenger receptor principally found in autonomic ganglia, hippocampus, cerebral cortex ([m.sub.1]AChR) and the cerebellum ([m.sub.2]AChR).
Other electrophysiological studies have proved that stimulation of oxytocin receptors reduces spontaneous firing yet enhances excitatory postsynaptic potential
onto pyramidal cells in the hippocampus .
Keywords: Centella asiatica Asiatic acid Acetylcholinesterase Excitatory postsynaptic potential
Abbreviations: AC, adenylate cyclase; AMPA, a-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate; AP, action potential; CaM, calmodulin; CaMKII, calmodulin-dependent kinase II; EPSP, excitatory postsynaptic potential
; HCN, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation; I-1, inhibitory protein 1; LTD, long-term depression; LTP, long-term potentiation; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; P, postnatal day; PKC, protein kinase C; PP1, protein phosphatase 1; PPF, paired-pulse facilitation; SC-CA1, Schaffer collateral synapse.
After stability of the recording had been obtained [recording for at least 30 min after mounting and a population field excitatory postsynaptic potential
(fEPSP) of constant amplitude], we recorded control responses and applied tetanic stimuli consisting of two separate 1-sec stimulations, each at the test intensity at 100 Hz with the two stimulations separated by 5 sec.