When we compare the characean internodal cell to the squid axon, we see first that the plant cell has three compartments that bathe two excitable membranes
, whereas the animal cell has only two compartments that bathe one excitable membrane
Hille, Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 2001.
Hanggi, "Controlling the spiking activity in excitable membranes via poisoning," Physica, vol.
Hille, "Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes
[31.] Hille B (1992) Ionic channels of excitable membranes
. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer.
Chapters are: describing motion; movement forces; movement analysis; running, jumping, and throwing; excitable membranes
; muscle and motor units; neural control of movement; acute adjustments; chronic adaptations.
It increases the permeability of excitable membranes
to Na+ thus producing membrane depolarization, enhanced spontaneous transmitter release, and muscle contracture.
LAs are membrane-stabilising drugs that reversibly decrease the rate of depolarisation and repolarisation of excitable membranes
. They act by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium channels in neuronal cell membranes so that action potentials cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited.
Insecticides as a tool in probing vital receptors and enzymes in excitable membranes
. Pest Biochem Physiol 57:235-254.
Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes
. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
It can affect excitable membranes
, peripheral nerves, and skeletal and cardiac muscles (Brazil and Fontana, 1985).
With the description of another toxin from shellfish called saxitoxin (possessing two guanidinium moieties), the molecular modeling work of Lipkind and Fozzard (1994) has led to some still-active debates about the three-dimensional structure of voltage-gated ion channels in excitable membranes
. Other toxins, members of the Conus snail arsenal of small polypeptide toxins, have a similar sodium channel-blocking activity; the U.S.