Typically the patient may present with euglycaemia
or hypoglycaemia due to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) consumption during the conversion of alcohol to acetate.
In addition, some studies even found that euglycaemia
was identified as a risk factor for poor outcomes, although their definitions of euglycaemia
were different (6,16).
The sweets which are offered to children usually contain 8 to 10 times more sugar than a ordinary cup of coffee, hypothetically necessitating an intense hyperinsulinaemia to maintain euglycaemia
. Such repeated and large portions of sweets consumed by children may not have any immediate clinical manifestation, but constitute a major metabolic stress to the beta cells of the pancreas.
Various insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs were developed, which were able to achieve euglycaemia
. However, it was soon realized that lowering glucose levels alone was not enough.
Although fasting glucose concentrations were not different in both the groups, the fasting insulin concentrations were higher in PCOS women than controls indicating that higher insulin levels were required to maintain euglycaemia
. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly different in PCOS women and controls (Table -1).
Furthermore, the onset of type-1 diabetes is acute, unlike that of type-2 diabetes, which is characterized by a period of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, and euglycaemia
preceding the onset of hyperglycaemia.
No previous studies have been done using subcutaneously injected insulin to examine the relationship between the amount of carbohydrate consumed and the amount of insulin required to maintain euglycaemia
(3) The progressive nature of this disease and the limited ability of oral anti-diabetic drugs (OAD) to reduce [A.sub.1c], coupled with the pressing need to obtain euglycaemia
as safely and quickly as possible to prevent long-term complications, means most patients will eventually require insulin.
Sports scientists generally recommend CHO-rich foods with low GI before prolonged exercise (6-8) which reduces the dependency on endogenous CHO at the onset of exercise and to maintain euglycaemia
for a longer period during exercise (9).
The aim is to maintain euglycaemia
, while avoiding both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.
The minimal daily requirements for postoperative TPN are 90 to 100 kcal/kg/d, 3 g/kg/d of protein, 3 to 4 g/kg/d of intravenous lipids and dextrose to maintain euglycaemia
Siepmann et al., "Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia
," Diabetologia, vol.