etoposide


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Related to etoposide: cisplatin, Ifosfamide

etoposide

 [e-to-po´sīd]
a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin used as the base or the phosphate salt as an antineoplastic agent in treatment of carcinoma of the testes, lung, or bladder, lymphoma, acute myelocytic leukemia, Ewing's sarcoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma; administered orally or intravenously.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

etoposide (VP-16-213)

Eposin (UK), Toposar, VePesid

etoposide phosphate

Etopophos

Pharmacologic class: Podophyllotoxin derivative

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic

Pregnancy risk category D

Action

Damages DNA before mitosis by inhibiting topoisomerase II enzyme. This action impairs DNA synthesis and inhibits selected cancer cell growth. Cell-cycle-phase specific.

Availability

Capsules: 50 mg

Injection: 20 mg/ml

Powder for injection (phosphate): 100 mg in single-dose vials

Indications and dosages

Testicular cancer

Adults: 50 to 100 mg/m2 I.V. daily for 5 days. Or 100 mg/m2 I.V. on days 1,3, and 5, with course repeated q 3 to 4 weeks.

Small-cell carcinoma of lung

Adults: 70 mg/m2 (rounded up or down to nearest 50 mg) P.O. daily for 4 days, then a maximum of 100 mg/m2 (rounded up or down to nearest 50 mg) P.O. daily for 5 days every 3 to 4 weeks. Alternatively, 35 mg/m2 I.V. daily for 4 days, then a maximum of 50 mg/m2 I.V. daily for 5 days q 3 to 4 weeks.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Off-label uses

• AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

• Wilms' tumor

• Neuroblastoma

• Malignant lymphoma

• Hodgkin's disease

• Ovarian neoplasms

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• active infections, decreased bone marrow reserve, renal or hepatic impairment

• pregnant patients and patients with childbearing potential

• breastfeeding patients

• children (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

• For I.V. concentrations above 0.4 mg/ml, mix each 100 mg with 250 to 500 ml of dextrose 5% in water or normal saline solution, to help prevent crystallization.

• Give I.V. infusion over 30 to 60 minutes. Don't use in-line filter.

Avoid rapid infusion, which may cause severe hypotension and bronchospasm.

• Administer with antiemetics, as prescribed.

• Wear disposable gloves when handling. If drug comes into contact with skin, wash thoroughly with soap and water.

• Be aware that drug is given with other chemotherapeutic agents.

Adverse reactions

CNS: drowsiness, fatigue, headache, vertigo, peripheral neuropathy

CV: hypotension (with I.V. use), heart failure, myocardial infarction

GI: nausea, vomiting, stomatitis

GU: sterility

Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatotoxicity

Metabolic: hyperuricemia

Musculoskeletal: muscle cramps

Respiratory: pulmonary edema, bronchospasm

Other: alopecia, fever, phlebitis at I.V. site, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Live-virus vaccines: increased risk of adverse reactions

Other antineoplastics: additive bone marrow depression

Drug-diagnostic tests. Hemoglobin, neutrophils, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells: decreased values

Uric acid: increased level

Patient monitoring

Monitor blood pressure during and after infusion. Stop infusion if severe hypotension occurs.

• With I.V. use, monitor infusion rate closely to prevent infusion reactions.

• Throughout infusion, check I.V. site for extravasation, which may cause thrombophlebitis.

Keep diphenhydramine, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, and artificial airway at hand in case anaphylaxis occurs.

• Assess for CNS adverse effects. Assist patient during ambulation as needed.

Monitor for signs and symptoms of bone marrow depression.

• Monitor CBC, liver function tests, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Report platelet count below 50,000/mm3 or neutrophil count below 500/mm3.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to inspect mouth daily for ulcers and bleeding gums.

Tell patient to immediately report difficulty breathing or signs and symptoms of allergic reaction.

Caution female of childbearing age to avoid pregnancy and breastfeeding during drug therapy.

• Instruct patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid lightheadedness or dizziness from sudden blood pressure decrease.

• Tell patient drug may cause hair loss.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

etoposide

(ē′tə-pō′sīd′)
n.
A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that is a mitotic inhibitor used in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors and small cell lung cancer.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

etoposide

Oncology A chemotherapeutic active against monocytic leukemia, CNS lymphoma, refractory small cell carcinoma, testicular CA, and KS, which may be co-administered with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin Adverse effects BM toxicity, hair loss, nausea, incoordination, stomatitis, dyspnea, anorexia. See AIDS, ALL.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

etoposide

An anticancer drug derived from a plant poison epipodophyllotoxin. It is used chiefly in the maintenance treatment of acute leukaemia after remission has been achieved and the bone marrow has recovered. It has been given by mouth to treat lung cancer. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Vepeside.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Randomized trial of bleomycin, etoposide, andcisplatin compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and carboplatin in good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: A multi-institutional Medical Research Council/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial.
Treatment with the alternating regimen VAC/IE (vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide) is a standard approach in nonmetastatic ES [8].
Etoposide causes the fragmentation of DNA through the inhibition of Topoisomerase II, evidenced by the formation of comet-like structures.
Loehrer, "Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumors with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastine or etoposide," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
These data suggest that four drugs commonly used for chemotherapy of NB patients, that is, cisplatin, etoposide, irinotecan, and topotecan, induce apoptosis of p53 wildtype NB cell lines and, at preapoptotic concentrations, do not induce the expression of activating ligands.
Patients received two cycles of paclitaxel with ifosfamide every two weeks, followed by 3 cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide every three weeks.
Twenty six of them were further excluded because they were not referring to breast cancer (nine publications), were studying etoposide in combination with other drugs or in the adjuvant setting (fifteen publications), were probably partially overlapping with one of the included studies (one publication) (5) or used higher dose intermittent schedule (one study) (6).
Researchers presented the results of a phase 2 trial of paclitaxel (T) plus ifosfamide (I) followed by high-dose carboplatin (C) plus etoposide (E) with stem-cell support (TICE) among 101 patients with relapsed advanced germ cell tumours (GCTs-71 with testicular tumours).
In contrast, the addition of etoposide, a topoisomerase inhibitor that induces DNA strand breaks in mitotic cells, resulted in the formation of autophagic structures even in Atg5-deficient MEFs.
Keywords: Entecavir, Etoposide, HPLC, Spiked plasma, Tablet dosage form.