Bisphosphonates are mainly of two sub classes, non Nitrogen containing like Etidronate
, Clodronate, Tiludronate and Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates Pamidronate, Nerid-ronate, Olpadronate, Alendronate, Ibandronate, Risedronate.
bisphosphonates (alendronate, etidronate
Ibandronate has previously been approved for postmenopausal osteoporosis in the US. In vitro studies  have demonstrated that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (alendronate, pamidronate, ibandronate, zoledronate, and risedronate) showed an approximately 10,000-fold greater potency than nonnitrogen-containing drugs (clodronate and etidronate
Adrenolate (Fosomax), etidronate
(Didronel) and zoledronic acid (Zometa) are the three most commonly-prescribed bisphosphonates.
Multiple treatment approaches with diltiazem, disodium etidronate
, probenecid, colchicine, minocycline, low-dose warfarin, and intralesional adrenal steroids have been explored, but no standard treatment has convincingly prevented or reduced calcinosis.
Effects of silicon, fluoride, etidronate
and magnesium on bone mineral density: a retrospective study.
 One such approach is by inhibiting the conjugative DNA relaxase with bisphosphonates like clodronate and etidronate
.  Targeting similar relaxases, other compounds too have shown potential like EDTA and Sulbactomax.
have reported that cyclic etidronate
seems to prevent osteoporosis induced by prednisone treatment in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (92).
Several therapies have been excluded from the update, including calcitonin, which is no longer widely used for osteoporosis treatment, and etidronate
and pamidronate, neither of which are FDA-approved for the prevention of fractures or treatment of osteoporosis.
Effect of etidronate
on three-dimensional trabecular structure in ovariectomized or sciatic neurectomized rats.
Similarly, it no longer addresses the use of etidronate
or pamidronate, which are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication.