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a clear liquid with an ammonia like odor and a strong alkaline reaction; complexed with theophylline, it forms aminophylline.

aminophylline (theophylline, ethylenediamine)

Amnivent (UK), Phyllocontin (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Xanthine

Therapeutic class: Bronchodilator

Pregnancy risk category C


Unclear. Thought to directly relax smooth muscle of bronchial airways and increase pulmonary blood flow by inhibiting phosphodiesterase.


Injection: 250 mg/10 ml

Oral liquid: 105 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 100 mg, 200 mg

Indications and dosages

Symptomatic relief of bronchospasm in patients with acute symptoms who require rapid theophyllinization

Adults (nonsmokers): 0.7 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.5 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 9 to 16: 1 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.8 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 6 months to 9 years: 1.2 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 1 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Chronic bronchial asthma

Adults and children: Dosage is highly individualized. Common initial dosage is 16 mg/kg/24 hours I.V. or 400 mg/24 hours I.V. in divided doses at 6- or 8hour intervals. If needed, dosage may be increased 25% at 3-day intervals.

Dosage adjustment

• Heart failure
• Hepatic disease
• Elderly patients
• Smokers

Off-label uses

• Dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


• Hypersensitivity to xanthine compounds or ethylenediamine
• Seizure disorders


Use cautiously in:
• COPD, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, renal or hepatic disease, heart failure or other cardiac or circulatory impairment, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, peptic ulcer, severe hypoxemia
• active peptic ulcer disease
• elderly patients
• neonates, infants, and young children.


• For I.V. use, dilute according to label directions and infuse at a rate no faster than 25 mg/minute.
• Don't give in I.V. solutions containing invert sugar, fructose, or fat emulsions.
• Give oral form at meals with 8 oz of water.

Adverse reactions

CNS: irritability, dizziness, nervousness, restlessness, headache, insomnia, stammering speech, abnormal behavior, mutism, unresponsiveness alternating with hyperactivity, seizures

CV: palpitations, sinus tachycardia, extrasystoles, marked hypotension, arrhythmias, circulatory failure

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux, anorexia

GU: urine retention (in men with enlarged prostate), diuresis, increased excretion of renal tubular cells and red blood cells, proteinuria

Metabolic: hyperglycemia

Musculoskeletal: muscle twitching

Respiratory: tachypnea, respiratory arrest

Skin: flushing

Other: fever, hypersensitivity reactions (including exfoliative dermatitis and urticaria)


Drug-drug.Adenosine: decreased antiarrhythmic effect of adenosine

Barbiturates, nicotine, phenytoin, rifampin: decreased aminophylline blood level

Beta-adrenergic blockers: antagonism of aminophylline effects

Calcium channel blockers, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, erythromycin, hormonal contraceptives, influenza vaccine, interferon, methotrexate: elevated aminophylline blood level

Carbamazepine, isoniazid, loop diuretics (such as furosemide): increased or decreased aminophylline blood level

Ephedrine, other sympathomimetics: toxicity, arrhythmias

Lithium: increased lithium excretion

Drug-diagnostic tests.Aspartate aminotransferase, glucose: increased levels

Drug-herbs.Cayenne: increased risk of aminophylline toxicity

Drug-behaviors.Smoking: increased aminophylline elimination

Patient monitoring

Monitor aminophylline blood level. Adjust dosage if patient has signs or symptoms of toxicity (tachycardia, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, and irritability).
• Assess for arrhythmias, especially after giving loading dose.
• Check vital signs and fluid intake and output.
• Monitor patient's response to drug, and assess pulmonary function test results.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take oral doses at meals with 8 oz of water.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• Tell patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of food and drinking plenty of fluids.
• Advise patient to establish effective bedtime routine to minimize insomnia.
• Caution patient not to change aminophylline brands.
• If patient smokes, tell him to notify prescriber if he stops smoking; dosage may need to be adjusted.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniacal odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.


/eth·y·lene·di·a·mine/ (eth″ĭ-lēn-di´ah-mēn) a clear liquid with an ammonialike odor and a strong alkaline reaction; complexed with theophylline it forms aminophylline.


a clear thick liquid having the odor of ammonia. It is used as a solvent, an emulsifier, and a stabilizer with aminophylline injections.


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier.


in complex with theophylline, it forms aminophylline.

ethylenediamine dihydrochloride
a urinary acidifier.
ethylenediamine dihydroiodide
used in livestock as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory agent and iodine supplement. Can cause poisoning if taken in excess. Signs include nasal and ocular discharge, dyspnea and cough.
ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid
see edetate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Injection pressure of ethylenediamine at the input end (Fig2) show that this system has a perfect mobility, the injection flow rate is 0.
However, since ethylenediamine contains twice as much nitrogen as monoethanolamine, it can be concluded that the two amines reacted with the sapwood to a similar degree.
Methyl glutarate and ethylenediamine react at 162[degrees]C to form 1,7-diaza-2-oxobicyclo[4.
The now-preferred ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant (1.
More recently, ethylenediamine tartrate, a piezoelectric crystal, was grown by Bell Labs, but it developed warts.
Orgel and co-workers (2, 3, 4) have looked at the 2[prime], 3[prime]-cyclic phosphate of nucleotides in anhydrous conditions in the presence of ethylenediamine and similar polyamines.
Each worker received three 5-day chelation treatments with intravenous calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid approximately 15 days apart.
Biomer is chemically a segmented polyurethaneurea (SPUU) prepared from hydroxyl-terminated poly(oxytetramethylene) (HT-PT), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MD1) and ethylenediamine (ED).
However in November 2010, Jiangxi Hurricane Chemical Co's 10,000 t/a ethylenediamine project was put into commercial production, greatly improving a situation where domestic ethylenediamine demand relies heavily on imports.
On the basis of the above consideration, ethylenediamine (en), an excellent ligand employed for the construction of transition metal complex, was added to the impregnating solution and then hydrothermally treated.
Chemicals: Xanthine oxidase, allopurinol, xanthine, hydroxylamine, N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, sulfanilic acid, ethylenediamine tetra acetate (EDTA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), gallic acid, 2, 4, 6-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ), 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), acetylthiocholine iodide, 5,5- dithiobis [2-nitro benzoic acid (DTNB) were purchased from Merck (Germany) and sigma aldrich.
Contaminants: order of draw should be followed while drawing blood or else carryover and backflow of potassium salts of tube additives such as ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid or oxalate can elevate measured potassium and even potassium containing IV fluids are common contaminants.

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