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a clear liquid with an ammonia like odor and a strong alkaline reaction; complexed with theophylline, it forms aminophylline.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

aminophylline (theophylline, ethylenediamine)

Amnivent (UK), Phyllocontin (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Xanthine

Therapeutic class: Bronchodilator

Pregnancy risk category C


Unclear. Thought to directly relax smooth muscle of bronchial airways and increase pulmonary blood flow by inhibiting phosphodiesterase.


Injection: 250 mg/10 ml

Oral liquid: 105 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 100 mg, 200 mg

Indications and dosages

Symptomatic relief of bronchospasm in patients with acute symptoms who require rapid theophyllinization

Adults (nonsmokers): 0.7 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.5 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 9 to 16: 1 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.8 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 6 months to 9 years: 1.2 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 1 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Chronic bronchial asthma

Adults and children: Dosage is highly individualized. Common initial dosage is 16 mg/kg/24 hours I.V. or 400 mg/24 hours I.V. in divided doses at 6- or 8hour intervals. If needed, dosage may be increased 25% at 3-day intervals.

Dosage adjustment

• Heart failure

• Hepatic disease

• Elderly patients

• Smokers

Off-label uses

• Dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


• Hypersensitivity to xanthine compounds or ethylenediamine

• Seizure disorders


Use cautiously in:

• COPD, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, renal or hepatic disease, heart failure or other cardiac or circulatory impairment, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, peptic ulcer, severe hypoxemia

• active peptic ulcer disease

• elderly patients

• neonates, infants, and young children.


• For I.V. use, dilute according to label directions and infuse at a rate no faster than 25 mg/minute.

• Don't give in I.V. solutions containing invert sugar, fructose, or fat emulsions.

• Give oral form at meals with 8 oz of water.

Adverse reactions

CNS: irritability, dizziness, nervousness, restlessness, headache, insomnia, stammering speech, abnormal behavior, mutism, unresponsiveness alternating with hyperactivity, seizures

CV: palpitations, sinus tachycardia, extrasystoles, marked hypotension, arrhythmias, circulatory failure

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux, anorexia

GU: urine retention (in men with enlarged prostate), diuresis, increased excretion of renal tubular cells and red blood cells, proteinuria

Metabolic: hyperglycemia

Musculoskeletal: muscle twitching

Respiratory: tachypnea, respiratory arrest

Skin: flushing

Other: fever, hypersensitivity reactions (including exfoliative dermatitis and urticaria)


Drug-drug. Adenosine: decreased antiarrhythmic effect of adenosine

Barbiturates, nicotine, phenytoin, rifampin: decreased aminophylline blood level

Beta-adrenergic blockers: antagonism of aminophylline effects

Calcium channel blockers, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, erythromycin, hormonal contraceptives, influenza vaccine, interferon, methotrexate: elevated aminophylline blood level

Carbamazepine, isoniazid, loop diuretics (such as furosemide): increased or decreased aminophylline blood level

Ephedrine, other sympathomimetics: toxicity, arrhythmias

Lithium: increased lithium excretion

Drug-diagnostic tests. Aspartate aminotransferase, glucose: increased levels

Drug-herbs. Cayenne: increased risk of aminophylline toxicity

Drug-behaviors. Smoking: increased aminophylline elimination

Patient monitoring

Monitor aminophylline blood level. Adjust dosage if patient has signs or symptoms of toxicity (tachycardia, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, and irritability).

• Assess for arrhythmias, especially after giving loading dose.

• Check vital signs and fluid intake and output.

• Monitor patient's response to drug, and assess pulmonary function test results.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take oral doses at meals with 8 oz of water.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

• Tell patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of food and drinking plenty of fluids.

• Advise patient to establish effective bedtime routine to minimize insomnia.

• Caution patient not to change aminophylline brands.

• If patient smokes, tell him to notify prescriber if he stops smoking; dosage may need to be adjusted.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniacal odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
After the reaction, autoclave was allowed to cool naturally to room temperature and CIS nanoparticles, in black color ethylenediamine organic solution, were collected after centrifugation at 8000 rpm repeated 4 times and rinsed with acetone to remove byproducts.
Multifunctional aminoterminated poly(amidoamine) hyperbranched polymer (HPAM) was prepared via Michael addition of methyl acrylate (MA) to ethylenediamine in one pot reaction, as shown in Scheme 1 [38].
Inhibition rate Inhibitor Concentration (mM) (%) Cysteine 1.36 100 0.45 78 0.23 17 Ascorbic acid 0.45 100 0.23 28 sodium sulfite 0.23 100 citric acid 2.27 100 1.36 94 0.45 44 0.23 28 Thiourea 2.27 0 Sodium azide 2.27 0 Ethylenediamine tetraacetic 2.27 65 acid disodium 1.36 35 0.45 18 0.23 12 Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate 0.45 100 0.23 82
Separation buffer for capillary electrophoresis consisted of 100 mmol/L phosphoric acid, 20 mmol/L ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and 0.35 mmol/L cetyldimethylethyl ammonium bromide, adjusted to pH 2 using sodium hydroxide pellets.
Louis MO) was boiled for 0.5 hr in a 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) solution followed by washing with deionized distilled water to avoid a major loss of lethal activity as measured in mice13.
The observation of this band together with the obscure of any band above 1700 [cm.sup.-1] assigning to v(C=0) vibration is taken as evidence for the participation of the carbonyl group in the condensation process with the amine used ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetraamine, p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine and 3,6-dioxaoctane-1,8-diamine.
Ethylenediamine ([H.sub.2]NC[H.sub.2]C[H.sub.2]N[H.sub.2]) is a simple diammonium, belonging to small molecular organic amines.
To anchor a best solvent for the [Bi.sub.2][T[e.sub.3] synthesis, ethylenediamine (en), N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, acetone, ethanol or distilled water were employed as reaction medium, respectively (11).
Here's the ingredients list from "16 percent Layer Crumbles," a feed designed for hens raised in confinement: "Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain Byproducts, Roughage Products, Forage Products On other words, could contain pretty much anything!--MOTHER], Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Methionine Supplement, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Mangenous Oxide, Ferrous Sulfate, Copper Chloride, Zinc Oxide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Sodium Selenite."
However, contact with disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), a food preservative, dissolved the coating.
The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, has announced that its subsidiary Union Carbide Corporation will be increasing ethyleneamine production capacity to enhance Dow's ability to meet global market demand for ethylenediamine (EDA) and diethylenetriamine (DETA).

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