ethylene glycol


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ethylene

 [eth´ĭ-lēn]
a colorless, highly flammable gas with a slightly sweet taste and odor, used as an inhalation anesthetic to induce general anesthesia.
ethylene glycol a solvent with a sweet, acrid taste, used as an antifreeze. Acute poisoning by ingestion can result in central nervous system depression, vomiting, hypotension, coma, convulsions, renal damage, and death. While damage is thought to be due to the formed oxalic acid, ethanol is a good treatment because it competitively inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase. The unaltered ethylene glycol is then excreted in the urine.
ethylene oxide a gaseous, flammable alkylating agent with a broad spectrum of activity, capable of killing both spores and viruses; it must be mixed with CO2 or fluorocarbons because it is explosive above 3 per cent. It is used in hospitals, surgery, dentistry, and the pharmaceutical and other industries for disinfecting and sterilizing instruments and equipment that would be destroyed by heat or would be adversely affected by immersion in water or other media. Its optimal germicidal effect occurs after a 3-hour exposure at 30°C.ƒ

Ethylene oxide is toxic because it alkylates tissue constituents; it is carcinogenic and may produce adverse reproductive effects. Inhalation may cause nausea, vomiting, and neurological disorders, and severe exposure may be fatal. Before items exposed to ethylene oxide can be used they must be aired for 5 days at room temperature or for 8 hours at 120° C to remove any trace of the gas. This is also true for articles of clothing, such as gloves and shoes, that have been exposed, because chemical burns can occur when the contaminated clothing comes in contact with the skin.

gly·col

(glī'kol),
1. A compound containing two alcohol groups.
2. Ethylene glycol.

ethylene glycol

Toxicology A chemical used as an antifreeze, which is highly toxic–50-100 ml and may be fatal ethanol surrogate occasionally used as an inebrient by alcoholics EG intoxication stages
1. CNS Sx, occurring within first 24 hrs.
2. Cardiovascular Sx, up to 72 hrs in duration.
3. Respiratory arrest and renal failure with anuria Lab Anion-gap metabolic acidosis, ↑ serum osmolality, osmolar gap, hypocalcemia Diagnosis GLC, fluorometry, colorimetry Treatment Gastric lavage, emesis, charcoal and catharsis, calcium gluconate for hypocalcemia.

ethylene glycol

A compound used mainly as an antifreeze additive. If ingested it may cause severe nervous system depression that may be fatal. Metabolism may lead to severe acidosis.

ethylene

a colorless, highly flammable gas with a slightly sweet taste and odor, used as an inhalation anesthetic to induce general anesthesia.

ethylene dibromide (EDB)
grain fumigant. Treated seed seriously reduces egg production when fed to hens in very small amounts.
ethylene dichloride
industrial fumigant; causes respiratory and ophthalmic irritation, narcosis, disturbance of equilibrium.
ethylene glycol
antifreeze; palatable enough for animals to drink in quantity. Causes ataxia, depression, coma, polydipsia, vomiting and convulsions due to formation of oxalate crystals in brain blood vessels and renal tubules.
ethylene oxide
a fumigant used for foodstuffs, surgical equipment and as an agricultural fungicide. It is a gaseous, flammable alkylating agent with a broad spectrum of activity, being sporicidal and viricidal. It is used (mixed with CO2 or fluorocarbons because it is explosive above 3%) for disinfecting and sterilizing equipment and instruments that are used in the hospital, surgery, dentistry, and the pharmaceutical and other industries, and that are thermolabile or will be adversely affected by immersion in water or other media. Its optimal germicidal effect occurs after a 3-hour exposure at 86°F (30°C). Its vapor is irritating to eyes and respiratory mucosa and can cause serious pulmonary edema. Called also oxirane.
References in periodicals archive ?
Company capacity shares for key Ethylene Glycol (EG) producers
According to the data in Table 2, the first two stages were slightly longer than that of PA, because ethylene glycol has two hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and a high boiling point.
The interaction of Vareties, poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatments on germination percentage and coleoptile length, and Germination rate, uniformity of germination not significant (table 1).
Interference of ethylene glycol with lactate measurement: a comparison study on new generation cassette-based blood gas analyzers.
Therapy focuses on interrupting the process in which ethylene glycol is being metabolized by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase.
6) EG is a more potent CNS depressant than ethanol; the degree of obtundation for an equivalent serum level of ethylene glycol is more profound than for ethanol.
Commercialised in 1994, the process allows manufacturers to produce ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol with fewer steps, less equipment and smaller plot size requirements than competitive technologies.
Small amounts of nickel improve the efficiency and selectivity of the catalyst system: a synergetic effect between the nickel and tungsten carbide not only allows 100% conversion of cellulose, but increases the proportion of ethylene glycol in the resulting mixture of polyalcohols to 61%.
Ethylene glycol is mainly used in making plastics and as an automotive anti-freeze.
An interesting fact is that ethylene glycol and methanol are not very toxic before being metabolized.
AWIFE from Wirral accused of trying to poison her husband by spiking his wine with anti-freeze, told a jury she could not understand why anyone in her house would want to find information on the internet about ethylene glycol.
The inquest was told that anautopsy found pure alcohol - ethylene glycol - was in her body at the time of her death.

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