Characterization of ethosuximide
reduction of low-threshold calcium current in thalamic neurons.
Table Drugs that can cause akathisia * Dopamine receptor agonists (such as antiparkinsons agents) * Carbidopa/levodopa * Ethosuximide
* Metoclopramide * Neuroleptics * Reserpine * Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Seizure medications: phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, ethosuximide
, methylphenobarbital, paramethadione, phenobarbital, topiramate
The most commonly used drugs are carbamazepine (Calepsin[R]), benzodiazepines (for example, clonazepame [Klonopin[R]]), barbiturates (for example, phenobarbital [Luminal[R]]), primidone (Mysoline[R]), phenytoin (Dilantin[R]), ethosuximide
(Zarontin[R]), gabapentin (Neurontin[R]), tiagabine (Gabitril[R]), topiramate (Topamax[R]), and valproate (Depacon[R]) (Glauser et al., 2006; Ropper & Brown, 2005).
At the time of his admission to the inpatient facility, he was on several medications including valproic acid, clonazepam, felbamate, ethosuximide
, and sertraline.
The subsequent chapters provide details on specific drugs: aminoglycosides, vancomycin, digoxin, lignocaine, procainamide, quinidine, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, phenobarbitone, ethosuximide
, cyclosporin, tacrolimus, lithium and theophylline.
Drug concentrations were as follows: phenytoin, 15.2 mg/L; phenobarbital, 30.3 mg/L; primidone, 7.1 mg/L; carbamazepine, 7.7 mg/L; carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, 1.9 mg/L; ethosuximide
, 68.1 mg/L; valproate, 76.8 mg/L; clonazepam, 42.0 [micro]g/L; lamotrigine, 3.1 mg/L; theophylline, 15.0 mg/L; caffeine, 7.8 mg/L; digoxin, 1.2 [micro]g/L; gentamicin, 2.7 mg/L; and lithium 0.76, mmol/L.
Although most of the drugs had no effect or were toxic to the worms, Kornfeld's team found that ethosuximide
, an anticonvulsant drug, increased the worms' life span by 17 percent.
ampicillin (Polycillin) ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Anticonvulsants: Act on the central nervous ethosuximide
(Zarontin) system to reduce number fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) and severity of seizures.
Parameters Used in Calculation of Imprecision Limits(*) Therapeutic Drug Therapeutic Range [t.sub.1/2] Range, h Carbamazepine, [micro]mol/L ([micro]g/mL) 16.9 (4)-50.8 (12) 12-17 Digoxin, nmol/L (ng/mL) 1.0 (0.8)-2.6 (2.0) 36-48 Ethosuximide
, [micro]mol/L ([micro]g/mL) 283 (40)-708 (100) 56-60 Lithium, mmol/L 0.5-1.0 24-24 N-Acetylprocainamide, [micro]mol/L ([micro]g/mL) 36.1 (10)-108 (30) ...
Q MY grand-daughter, who is eight, has been prescribed 250mg per day of Ethosuximide
for the non-fit type of epilepsy she has.
Standard therapies in children include carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ethosuximide
, phenytoin, valproic acid, prednisone, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone.