The majority of cases in which ELSPA was unsuccessful were controlled by subsequent anterior ethmoidal
artery ligation, representing 9% of all cases (75% of failures).
At the tertiary center, he underwent endoscopic ablation of the anterior ethmoidal
artery, which was found to be torn and bleeding.
When the uncinate process is attached to the skull base or middle turbinate, the frontal recess opens into the ethmoidal
infundibulum and can be involved in infundibular disease.
Follow-up endoscopy revealed a healthy right ethmoidal
cavity with no recurrence.
Intraoperatively greenish brown mucopurulent debris was removed from the maxillary sinus, ethmoidal
cells and from the roof of the orbit.
Next common complication was entry into the anterior ethmoidal
air cells in 5 cases (10%), which was attributed to anatomical variation.
Comparison of conservative versus surgical treatment of ethmoidal
Except for a case of ethmoidal
mucocoele which was demonstrated on U/S, all other lesions were characterised only by CT.
2] The orbital apex is defined as the region between the posterior ethmoidal
foramen and the openings of the optic canal and the superior orbital fissure.
It develops from an outpouching of the lateral nasal wall of the nasal capsule in the ethmoidal
area (Levine & Clemente, 2005).
also reported that maxillary sinus was the most commonly involved sinus followed by ethmoidal
, frontal and the sphenoidal sinuses which is in accordance to the present study findings which strengthen the findings of this study as 70% of the patients had maxillary sinus.
sup], However, ESS requires strong familiarity with the anatomy of the sphenoethmoidal region and surrounding skull base structures because of the presence of critical structures such as the internal carotid artery (ICA), optic nerves, and ethmoidal