While desogestrel is available in SA in combination with ethinyloestradiol
as Marvelon and Mercilon, it is not available as a POP.
What is the safe and effective dose of ethinyloestradiol
? Br J Urol 1989;63:76-9.
Orme, "Comparative pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel and ethinyloestradiol
following intravenous, oral and vaginal administration," Contraception, vol.
The research team tested the fish's sensitivity to different chemicals known to affect oestrogen hormone signalling, including ethinyloestradiol
, used in the contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy treatments, nonylphenol, used in paints and industrial detergents, and Bisphenol A, which is found in many plastics.
is used almost exclusively in oral contraceptives in combination with progestogens.
(1) Several options were tried, from high doses of oestrogen alone, as described above, to high doses of combined oral pills containing ethinyloestradiol
and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regime.
The synthetic steroid 17a ethinyloestradiol
(the contraceptive pill) has been found to be more potent than previously thought, affecting fish in minute concentrations below 1 nanogram per litre - one thousand millionth of a gram.
;norethisterone), Eugynon 30 (ethinyloestradoil, norgestimate) Femodene (ethinyloestradoil, gestodene).
Moreover, three natural or synthetic hormones (strone, ethinyloestradiol
and stradiol) were assessed in order to gather the most information possible about exposure to these substances in the environment and their effects.
Diva 35 (21 tablets containing cyproterone acetate 2 mg/ ethinyloestradiol
0.035 mg + 7 placebo tablets) is priced at R50.00 (SEP excl.