ethinyloestradiol

ethinyloestradiol

Ethinylestradiol, a powerful synthetic oestrogen drug that can be taken by mouth and is widely used as a component of oral contraceptives and as an anti-androgen to treat female acne and hirsutism. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Dianette, Femodene, Femodette and Loestrin. The drug is also commonly formulated with a PROGESTOGEN and sold under such brand names as Binovum, Brevinor, Cilest, Eugynon 30, Femodene, Femodene ED, Loestrin 20, Logynon, Logynon ED, Marvelon, Mercilon, Microgynon 30, Microgynon 30 ED, Minulet, Norimin, Norinyl-1, Ortho-Novin 1/50, Ovran, Ovranette, Ovysmen, Schering PC4, Synphase, Tri-Minulet, Triadene, Trinordiol and Trinovum.
References in periodicals archive ?
While desogestrel is available in SA in combination with ethinyloestradiol as Marvelon and Mercilon, it is not available as a POP.
The research team tested the fish's sensitivity to different chemicals known to affect oestrogen hormone signalling, including ethinyloestradiol, used in the contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy treatments, nonylphenol, used in paints and industrial detergents, and Bisphenol A, which is found in many plastics.
Ethinyloestradiol is used almost exclusively in oral contraceptives in combination with progestogens.
Instead of being excreted via the gut, the metabolites may be hydrolysed by enzymatic activity of the gut bacteria (principally Clostridium species) to liberate active ethinyloestradiol from the sulphate and glucuronide groups.
It has been well demonstrated that rifampicin accelerates the metabolism of both ethinyloestradiol and progestogens and potential failure of both COC and the progesterone-only pill.
Theoretically, broad-spectrum antibiotics might temporarily eradicate the gut flora responsible for the deconjugation of ethinyloestradiol metabolites interrupting the enterohepatic recirculation.
Ethinyloestradiol - an undesired fish contraceptive, en: Aquatic Toxicology, 45: 91-97.
1) Several options were tried, from high doses of oestrogen alone, as described above, to high doses of combined oral pills containing ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regime.
The synthetic steroid 17a ethinyloestradiol (the contraceptive pill) has been found to be more potent than previously thought, affecting fish in minute concentrations below 1 nanogram per litre - one thousand millionth of a gram.
Moreover, three natural or synthetic hormones (strone, ethinyloestradiol and stradiol) were assessed in order to gather the most information possible about exposure to these substances in the environment and their effects.
Diva 35 (21 tablets containing cyproterone acetate 2 mg/ ethinyloestradiol 0.