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4]) Carboxymethylation Etherification alkaline Biodegradable of starch propyl- Sodium-mono polymer for coating etherification of chlorocetate 1-bromo for food and starch propane pharmaceutical products Amphotenic Amphoteric starches: Paper making starches Etherification, additives, for Esterification, retention, and Grafting strength properties Cross-linked Cross-linkage Food additives: starch phosphoryl chloride thickners, colloidal stabilizer, water retention, agents for food and Non-food waste [H.
The cellulose was converted to CMC through carboxymethylation process using William Etherification technique in heterogeneous system.
The aim of the column in Case 2 is the etherification of ?
Higher degrees of hydrolysis result in a product with higher hydroxyl content and lower viscosity, whereas etherification (oligomerization) results in lower hydroxyl content and higher viscosity.
The etherification system recently developed by Nakano's group at Toyko University, employing finely powdered sodium hydroxide as base in dimethyl sulphoxide, was used by:
It was expected to observe several side reactions as noted in the literature, in particular, the etherification and homopolymerization reactions at cure profiles extended beyond epoxy conversion of 40-50% .
Mechanistically, the reaction proceeds from amine active hydrogen attach onto the oxirane, but as the reaction proceeds the active hydrogen is sterically hindered and etherification dominates.
In order to investigate their potential applications as additives, we synthesized the allyl-terminated hyperbranched PAEKs (HBP-AL) via an etherification between HBP-OH and allyl bromide and incorporated HBP-AL into the bismaleimide (BMI) resins based on 4,4'-bismaleimideodiphenylmethane (BMDM, Chart 1) and 2,2'-diallylbisphenal A (DBA).
This latter reaction competes with etherification of secondary hydroxyl groups and main chain trans eslerification.
Similar phenomena were also reported previously for epoxy systems with carboxyl or anhydride curing agents (27), (26), in which the first peak was attributed to estcrification reaction between epoxy groups and carboxyl groups, and the second to the etherification reaction of epoxy groups with hydroxyl groups, which were generated from the first reaction.
The etherification side reactions give water and products having diethylene glycol end groups (Reaction 3) or diethylene glycol and carboxylic acid end groups (Reaction 4) (13).
Many types of reactions have been reported including the monoesterification and transesterification reactions of carboxylic acids (6-8), decarboxylation-induced crosslink reaction (9), imide ring-opening reaction (10-12), graft crosslink with etherification reaction (4), (13), ultra violet crosslink (14-16), acetylenes of a Diels-Alder-type cycloaddition reaction (17-19), and crosslink using dendrimer (20), (21).
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