estrogen replacement therapy

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activity therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prescription of and assistance with specific physical, cognitive, social, and spiritual activities to increase the range, frequency, or duration of an individual's (or group's) activity.
aerosol therapy see aerosol therapy.
animal-assisted therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of animals to provide affection, attention, diversion, and relaxation.
anticoagulant therapy see anticoagulant therapy.
antineoplastic therapy see antineoplastic therapy.
antiplatelet therapy the use of platelet inhibitors such as aspirin, dipyridamole, or sulfinpyrazone, to inhibit platelet adhesion or aggregation and so prevent thrombosis, alter the course of atherosclerosis, or prolong vascular graft patency.
art therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of communication through drawings or other art forms.
aversion therapy (aversive therapy) a form of behavior therapy that uses aversive conditioning, pairing undesirable behavior or symptoms with unpleasant stimulation in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior of symptoms. The term is sometimes used synonymously with aversive conditioning.
behavior therapy see behavior therapy.
carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy see carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy.
chest physical therapy see under physical therapy.
client-centered therapy a form of psychotherapy in which the emphasis is on the patient's self-discovery, interpretation, conflict resolution, and reorganization of values and life approach, which are enabled by the warm, nondirective, unconditionally accepting support of the therapist, who reflects and clarifies the patient's discoveries.
cognitive therapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy) a directive form of psychotherapy based on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and ways of thinking that can be corrected. Using techniques drawn in part from behavior therapy, the therapist actively seeks to guide the patient in altering or revising negative or erroneous perceptions and attitudes.
collapse therapy a formerly common treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in which the diseased lung was collapsed in order to immobilize it and allow it to rest. pneumonolysis and thoracoplasty are methods still sometimes used to collapse a lung and allow access during thoracic surgery.
combined modality therapy treatment of cancer using two or more types of therapy, such as with chemoradiotherapy. Called also multimodality therapy.
compression therapy treatment of venous insufficiency, varicose veins, or venous ulceration of the lower limbs by having the patient wear compressing garments such as support hose.
continuous renal replacement therapy hemodialysis or hemofiltration done 24 hours a day for an extended period, usually in a critically ill patient.
convulsive therapy treatment of mental disorders, primarily depression, by induction of convulsions. The type almost universally used now is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), in which the convulsions are induced by electric current. In the past, drugs were sometimes used.
couples therapy marital t.
diet therapy treatment of disease by regulation of the diet.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (electroshock therapy) see electroconvulsive therapy.
endocrine therapy treatment of disease by means of hormones; called also hormonal or hormone therapy.
estrogen replacement therapy administration of an estrogen to treat estrogen deficiency, such as that occurring after menopause; there are a number of indications, including the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and coronary artery disease, and the prevention and treatment of vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and of thinning of the skin and vaginal epithelium, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy. In women with a uterus, a progestational agent is usually included to prevent endometrial hyperplasia. Called also hormone replacement therapy.
exercise therapy: ambulation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of and assistance with walking to maintain or restore autonomic and voluntary body functions during treatment and recovery from illness or injury.
exercise therapy: balance in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as use of specific activities, postures, and movements to maintain, enhance, or restore balance.
exercise therapy: joint mobility in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of active or passive body movement to maintain or restore joint flexibility.
exercise therapy: muscle control in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of specific activity or exercise protocols to enhance or restore controlled body movement.
family therapy
1. group therapy of the members of a family, exploring and improving family relationships and processes, understanding and modifying home influences that contribute to mental disorder in one or more family members, and improving communication and collective, constructive methods of problem-solving.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assisting family members to move their family toward a more productive way of living.
gold therapy chrysotherapy.
group therapy see group therapy.
helium-oxygen therapy see helium-oxygen therapy.
hemodialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of extracorporeal passage of the patient's blood through a hemodialyzer. See also hemodialysis.
hemofiltration therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as cleansing of acutely ill patient's blood via a hemofilter controlled by the patient's hydrostatic pressure. See also hemofiltration.
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the aggressive use of extremely potent antiretroviral agents in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
hormonal therapy (hormone therapy) endocrine therapy.
hormone replacement therapy the administration of hormones to correct a deficiency; usually used to denote estrogen replacement therapy occurring after menopause.
host modulating therapy efforts to control periodontal disease by directly targeting the host response; an example is the use of drugs that do this, such as sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or bisphosphonates.
humidification therapy (humidity therapy) the therapeutic use of air supersaturated with water to prevent or correct a moisture deficit in the respiratory tract; see also humidity therapy.
immunosuppressive therapy therapeutic immunosuppression.
inhalation therapy the term formerly used for respiratory care (def. 3).
intravenous therapy (IV therapy) in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of intravenous infusions of fluids and medications.
leech therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the application of medicinal leeches to help drain replanted or transplanted tissue engorged with venous blood.
marital therapy a type of family therapy aimed at understanding and treating one or both members of a couple in the context of a distressed relationship, but not necessarily addressing the discordant relationship itself. In the past, the term has also been used in a narrower sense to mean what is defined as marriage therapy, but that is increasingly considered a subset of marital therapy. Called also couples therapy.
marriage therapy a subset of marital therapy that focuses specifically on the bond of marriage between two people, enhancing and preserving it.
milieu therapy
1. treatment, usually in a psychiatric treatment center, that emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to the patient's emotional and interpersonal needs.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of people, resources, and events in the patient's immediate environment to promote optimal psychosocial functioning.
multimodality therapy combined modality therapy.
music therapy
1. the use of music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems. Music therapy is used for a wide variety of conditions, including mental disorders, developmental and learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions related to aging, brain injury, substance abuse, and physical disability. It is also used for the management of acute and chronic pain and for the reduction of stress.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using music to help achieve a specific change in behavior or feeling.
neoadjuvant therapy in single-agent therapy or combined modality therapy for cancer, initial use of one modality, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, to decrease tumor burden prior to use of another modality, usually surgery.
nutrition therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration of food and fluids to support metabolic processes of a patient who is malnourished or at high risk for becoming malnourished. See also nutrition.
occupational therapy see occupational therapy.
optometric vision therapy a treatment plan prescribed to correct or improve specific dysfunctions of the vision system; it includes, but is not limited to, the treatment of strabismus (turned eye), other dysfunctions of binocularity (eye teaming), amblyopia (lazy eye), accommodation (eye focusing), ocular motor function (general eye movement ability), and visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities.
oral rehydration therapy (ORT) oral administration of a solution of electrolytes and carbohydrates in the treatment of dehydration.
oxygen therapy see oxygen therapy.
peritoneal dialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of dialysis solution into and out of the peritoneal cavity. See also peritoneal dialysis.
physical therapy see physical therapy.
play therapy see play therapy.
pulp canal therapy root canal therapy.
PUVA therapy [psoralen + ultraviolet A], a form of photochemotherapy for skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo; oral psoralen administration is followed two hours later by exposure to ultraviolet a radiation.
radiation therapy see radiation therapy.
recreation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of recreation to promote relaxation and enhancement of social skills.
reminiscence therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using the recall of past events, feelings, and thoughts to facilitate pleasure, quality of life, or adaptation to present circumstances.
renal replacement therapy therapy such as hemodialysis or transplantation that takes the place of nonfunctioning kidneys. See also continuous renal replacement therapy.
replacement therapy treatment to replace deficient formation or loss of body products by administration of the natural body products or synthetic substitutes. See also replacement. Called also substitution therapy.
respiratory therapy respiratory care.
root canal therapy that aspect of endodontics dealing with the treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, consisting of partial (pulpotomy) or complete (pulpectomy) extirpation of the diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty root canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive sealing material, and obturation of the canal with a nonirritating hermetic sealing agent. Called also pulp canal therapy.
shock therapy obsolete term for convulsive therapy.
simple relaxation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of techniques to encourage and elicit relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle tension, or anxiety.
speech therapy the use of special techniques for correction of speech disorders.
substitution therapy replacement therapy.
swallowing therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating swallowing and preventing complications of impaired swallowing.
thrombolytic therapy the administration of drugs for thrombolysis (dissolution of a thrombus in an artery), to reduce the size of occlusion and thereby reduce damage to muscular tissue; the coronary artery is a commonly used site. Agents commonly used are streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).
thyroid replacement therapy treatment of hypothyroidism by administration of thyroxine, usually in the form of levothyroxine sodium. Called also thyrotherapy.
ultraviolet therapy see ultraviolet therapy.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

estrogen replacement therapy (ERT),

administration of sex hormones to women after menopause or oophorectomy.

In the later decades of the 20th century, estrogen replacement therapy became a standard practice for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. During the 1980s, recognition that administration of unopposed estrogen increases the risk of endometrial cancer led to the addition of progestogen to postmenopausal regimens. In 2000, at least one third of American women between the ages of 50 and 75 were taking estrogenic hormones. The notion that estrogen replacement therapy, widely used to combat menopausal symptoms such as atrophic vaginitis and vasomotor instability ("hot flashes"), might also protect against cardiovascular disease arose partly from the statistical observation that a woman's risk of adverse cardiovascular events increases rapidly after menopause. But although numerous observational studies previously seemed to confirm this protective role of hormones, large and powerful clinical trials later demonstrated not only a lack of benefit from estrogen administration but actually an increased risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, invasive breast cancer, and Alzheimer dementia. Administration of estrogen after natural or surgical menopause remains an effective measure against vasomotor instability and atrophic vaginitis; raises HDL cholesterol; lowers levels of total and LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein Lp(a), homocysteine, fibrinogen, and renin, and reduces the risk of osteoporosis and colorectal cancer. It is also used for palliation in selected patients with breast and prostatic cancer. However, it is no longer endorsed as prophylaxis against cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, because the risk of adverse effects appears to outweigh expected benefits for most women. Although estrogen therapy helps prevent bone loss after menopause, evidence is lacking that it reduces the risk of fractures. Moreover, anecdotal reports that estrogen may retard the onset and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, parkinsonism, and Alzheimer dementia lack firm experimental support. In fact, the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study found that estrogen plus progestogen therapy slightly increases the risk of dementia. Postmenopausal women with established cardiovascular disease who take estrogen experience about a threefold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. Women with a history of prior ischemic stroke who take estrogen have an increased risk of subsequent fatal stroke. Postmenopausal women who take estrogen have a 40% increase in the risk of gallbladder disease. Several studies have indicated an increased incidence of carcinoma of the breast, ovary, and endometrium. Combining cyclic progestogen administration with daily estrogen restores menstrual cycles (when the uterus is intact) but apparently does not reduce the risk of carcinogenesis, and may even increase it. In addition, current studies suggest that estrogen alone is less likely than estrogen-progestogen to cause adverse cardiovascular effects.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

estrogen replacement therapy

n. Abbr. ERT
The administration of estrogen to postmenopausal women to relieve the symptoms of menopause, prescribed primarily to women who have had hysterectomies.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

estrogen replacement therapy

Estrogen administered to postmenopausal ♀, often in the form of a vaginal cream, which ameliorates the effects of lost ovarian function, ↓ progression of osteoporosis, has a cardioprotective effect, ↓ hot flashes, urogenital symptoms–eg, vaginal dryness, burning, itching, dyspareunia, bleeding, skin changes, depression; ERT ↓ PAI-1 by 50%, which may explain its benefit in CAD Cons ↑ in endometrial CA, HTN, thromboembolism, gallbladder disease, breast neoplasia– ↑ use of ERT, ↑ risk of breast CA
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

es·tro·gen re·place·ment ther·a·py

(ERT) (es'trŏ-jen rĕ-plās'mĕnt thār'ă-pē)
Administration of sex hormones to women after menopause or oophorectomy.
Synonym(s): hormone replacement therapy, oestrogen replacement therapy.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)

A treatment in which estrogen is used therapeutically during menopause to alleviate certain symptoms such as hot flashes. ERT has also been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and heart disease in women.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer.
Serum vitamin B12 assays were performed in 83 randomly selected participants with initial and repeat measurements of BMD who were not taking estrogen replacement therapy at baseline.
The Food and Drug Administration last month approved Estrasorb--the first topical estrogen replacement therapy for treating moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause.
To avoid the potential problems of estrogen replacement therapy compliance in women and bias issues, the researchers used BMD as a surrogate biomarker for lifetime exposure to estrogen.
(All the women in this study were given calcium supplements.) The Food and Drug Administration has approved five medications to treat or prevent osteoporosis: estrogen replacement therapy, alendronate (Fosamax), raloxifene (Evista), risedronate (Actonel), and calcitonin (Calcimar).
68, 1998) found that 90 mg of isoflavones a day increased bone density in the spine that compared with the amount increased by using estrogen replacement therapy (ERT).
"Estrogen replacement therapy [ERT], such as Premarin, and hormone replacement therapy [HRT], such as Prempro and Premphase, are effective therapeutic measures against osteoporosis," says the spokeswoman.
Researchers know that the most commonly prescribed treatment for hot flashes, estrogen replacement therapy, should not be given to women who have suffered from breast cancer.
Post-menopausal women who were taking estrogen replacement therapy and had severe heart disease were much more likely to be alive after the 10-year period than non-estrogen users in the same cardiac condition.
What is estrogen replacement therapy and how does it work?
You are not alone.' Many of our menopausal and postmenopausal respondents are suffering or have suffered psychological as well as physical symptoms, and of those who have been given estrogen replacement therapy, the majority have had relief.

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