In the case of the small ground squirrel (Spermophilus pygmaeus), hibernation may last six or seven months, and in some males it may last as long as ten months (estivation
leading directly into hibernation).
Several turtles endured multiple bouts of estivation in dry terrestrial or moist marsh beds during 2005; the longest period of inactivity averaged 18.1 d (range = 10-40 days).
In our study, behavioral modifications, such as estivation and ability to move to nearby refuges as well as the proximity of suitable habitat (i.e., Des Plaines River, cattail root mass cavities in dry marsh beds), allowed a species of conservation concern to survive a severe but short-term drought and resume normal activity during a subsequent normal hydrological year.
Radiotelemetry reveals terrestrial estivation in Sonoran mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense).
is the equivalent in hot climates of hibernation in cold ones.) To survive the most adverse conditions, the Couch's toad digs deep burrows in the sand where it spends the hot season in dormancy, thus reducing its energy and water needs.
Aquatic estivation sites include ponds or marshes (Ward et al., 1976; Ernst, 1976, 1982) while grasslands and upland rocky outcrops and forest floors may be the sites of terrestrial, subterranean estivation (Litzgus et al., 1999; Litzgus and Mouseau, 2004).
In 2006, turtles entered mid-summer estivation between 27 Jun.
* Elongate amphibians such as salamanders and caecil-ians coil under many conditions including resting, brooding eggs, defense, and estivation (Cochran, 1911; Heatwole, 1960; Brodie, 1977; Brodie et al., 1984; Trauth et al., 2006; Fontenot and Lutterschmidt, 2011).
* Elongate squamates, especially snakes, coil for many functional purposes including resting, feeding, defense, estivation, and hibernation (Roth, 2003; Heatwole et al., 2007).
Although we did not follow turtles undergoing terrestrial flight responses as they moved away from the water, we assumed they selected terrestrial refuges similar to those selected when turtles were entering terrestrial estivation (Ligon and Stone, 2003; Hall and Steidl, 2007).
Many mud turtles, including those in our study area, occur in habitats where water is absent for long periods, resulting in forced estivation of entire populations (Semmler, 1979; Ligon and Stone, 2003).
Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis, hibernation, and estivation