In our study, behavioral modifications, such as estivation and ability to move to nearby refuges as well as the proximity of suitable habitat (i.
Radiotelemetry reveals terrestrial estivation in Sonoran mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense).
In 2006, turtles entered mid-summer estivation between 27 Jun.
With the exception of a single individual that entered a stream, foraging, estivation, and overwintering all occurred within the confines of our single, open wetland, or immediately at the wetland-forest interface.
In previously studied Clemmys guttata populations, turtles either moved among lowland aquatic wetlands (Haxton and Berrill, 2001) or moved from vernal wetlands to upland forests, fields, or rocky outcrops for nesting, estivation, or activity within forested ponds with subsequent return to wetlands in the fall for hibernation (Litzgus and Brooks, 2000; Joyal et al.
Despite extensive upland forest that surrounded our wetland, Clemmys guttata used Sphagnum mounds or burrowed under matted grasses and sedges for estivation purposes.
Although we did not follow turtles undergoing terrestrial flight responses as they moved away from the water, we assumed they selected terrestrial refuges similar to those selected when turtles were entering terrestrial estivation (Ligon and Stone, 2003; Hall and Steidl, 2007).
Many mud turtles, including those in our study area, occur in habitats where water is absent for long periods, resulting in forced estivation of entire populations (Semmler, 1979; Ligon and Stone, 2003).
Physiological capacity for estivation of the Sonoran mud turtle, Kinosternon sonoriense.
Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis, hibernation, and estivation