essential amino acid


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essential amino acid

Etymology: L, essentia, quality
an organic compound not synthesized in the body that is essential for protein synthesis in adults and optimal growth in infants and children. Adults require isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Infants need these amino acids plus arginine and histidine. Cysteine and tyrosine are derived from methionine and phenylalanine, respectively, and are considered semiessential. See also amino acid, nonessential amino acid.

essential amino acid

An amino acid that is required for growth and development but that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from food. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Synonym: indispensable amino acid
See also: amino acid

essential amino acid

an AMINO ACID that must be taken in via the diet, as distinct from nonessential amino acids, which can be synthesized by the organism itself, in a process called TRANSAMINATION, using the essential amino acids as a source. In humans there are ten essential amino acids: ARGININE, TRYPTOPHAN, ISOLEUCINE, METHIONINE, THREONINE, LYSINE, LEUCINE, VALINE, HISTIDINE and PHENYLALANINE.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 4 presents the proportions of essential amino acids in a standard protein and in the muscles of different fishes of this study.
Possibly, the reduction in egg weight has occurred due to the deficiency of some essential amino acids, probably cystine and methionine.
The essential amino acids components of flaxseed has been found as lysine 4.
9) The combination of carbohydrates and essential amino acids has demonstrated a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis, which was shown to be greater than the summation of their individual effects.
Multiple sources of protein promote protein synthesis after exercise, but only those with essential amino acids elevate synthesis.
In fact, the rumen microbes can make essential amino acids from nitrogen sources that are not even in protein form.
It can be used throughout life as a protein source that is extremely low in phenylalanine and balanced for the remaining essential amino acids.
They have become little factories for essential amino acid manufacture," says Baumann.
Animals produce SAM-e from the essential amino acid methionine energy-yielding compound adenosine triphosphate.
A reduced food intake and prolonged protein deprivation affect essential amino acid profiles and particularly branched-chain amino acid levels, since those amino acids are ingested with food intake.