When a hyperope then switches to contact lens wear they have to diverge more by themselves, which if they are capable, will result in an esophoric shift.
Conversely, converging at near through hyperopic spectacles creates base-out prism, moving the image inwards and decreasing divergence demand, resulting in an esophoric shift when changing to contact lens wear (8)
(inward deviation) and exophoric (outward deviation) eye posture was determined using the Howell card at distance and near.
Also, in the early postoperative period, orthophotic or [less than or equal to] 10 PD esophoric patients have a higher final surgical success rate.
Successful and unsuccessful surgical results in orthophoric, < 10 PD exophoric, and < 10 PD esophoric patients 1 week and 6 months post surgery Successful Unsuccessful P n=181 n=85 Orthophoric Patients 1 week post surgery (n=86) 70 (38.7%) 16 (18.8%) <0.001 6 months post surgery (n=60) 58 (32.0%) 2 (2.4%) <0.001 <10 PD Esophoric Patients 1 week post surgery (n=33) 29 (16%) 4 (4.7%) 0.009 6 months post surgery (n=14) 13 (7.2%) 1 (1.2%) 0.042 <10 PD Exophoric Patients 1 week post sutgery (n=101) 71 (39.2%) 30 (35.3%) 0.538 6 months post sutgery (n=122) 98 (54.1%) 24 (28.2%) <0.001 Table 6.
So, to encourage someone to view this esophoric
film would only be an act for curiosity's sake.
There were no differences in visual status among groups, and each group contained esophoric
and exophoric participants (see the next section).
(34) Clinical tests show a reduction in the amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced near vision/ visual acuity and an exophoria at near on cover test that becomes relatively esophoric
if the patient tries to exert more accommodation.
devations, negative fusional amplitudes are exercised and increased by using base in prisms.
deviations, base out prism is introduced in front of one eye, increasing until the nonius markers on the Mallet unit line up (use base in prism for exophoric deviations and base up for hyperphoric deviations).
Of the remaining 190 patients, cover test revealed 86% to be orthophoric, 13% to be exophoric and only 1% were esophoric
. Those patients with heterophoria were within normal ranges and showed good recovery on the cover-uncover test.
For example, some patients may be orthophoric at their reading distance (eg, 40cm), or even esophoric
, and yet not be able to converge to 10cm.