In hyperopic patients with decompensated esophoria
, the maximum plus should be prescribed to compensate for the esophoria
of cases Percentage Exophoria 12 27.2 Esophoria
10 22.72 Defective convergence 22 50.0 Table 11: Location of headache in various ocular abnormalities (n = 546) Location of headache No.
(2-4) Many previous studies have reported many factors such as preoperative deviation amount, presence of refractive errors, presence of anisometropia, age at the time of surgery, presence of A- and V-pattern, age at onset of deviation, and esophoria
rate 1 day and 1 week postoperative that affect the surgical success, whilst some studies have reported that there are no factors that affect the surgical success in patients with intermittent exotropia.
Parker, "A randomized clinical trial of bifocal glasses for myopic children with esophoria
: results after 54 months," Optometry, vol.
Research has shown that esophoria
at near can slow down reading speed in children, (1) as vergence problems result in a child having to make far more fixations across a page when reading, each at risk of error.
At the last FU at 60 months, distance/ near disparity was resolved and only an esophoria
of 6 PD remained at distance and at near fixation as well as a small DVD that was well compensated.
In addition, the current study also found abnormally high esophoria
in 3 of the 21 subjects with mTBI (15%).
At this point, there was suspicion of a visual conversion reaction (psychogenic) (32) and in view of the esophoria
the plan at this stage was to call the child back for a cycloplegic refraction.
Five exhibited esophoria
, while two exhibited exophoria of greater than 6 PDs.
(10) This can be beneficial to moderate-to-high myopes where the spectacle-to-contact lens effect will be greater, specifically for those exhibiting esophoria
in spectacles, which has been associated with a higher rate of myopia progression.
In the author's opinion, the small distance esophoria
on Maddox rod is not significant and the patient's symptoms mostly related to near vision.
* Refractive--due to the relationship between accommodation and convergence, the act of accommodating to overcome hyperopia can lead to esophoria
. Anisometropie spectacle corrections can induce vertical prismatic effects when looking away from the optical centre of the lenses, which can cause hyperphoria.