Oesophageal obstruction due to a mango in a heifer (Veena et al., 2000), in a cow (Vishwanatha et al., 2012 and Manjunatha et al., 2013), tarpaulin cloth in a buffalo calf (Sreenu and Sureshkumar, 2001), tennis ball in a cow (Manjunatha et al., 2013) and stone in a bullock (Dellipkumar et al., 1995) have been removed by esophagotomy. However in our study, mango, potato, trichobezoars, beet root, carrot, food stuff (hay) and part of coconut were removed from cattle through oral cavity by hand.
Ruben (1997) reported risk of post operative complications associated with esophagotomy as incisional dehiscence and fistula formation but in our study the non invasive technique of retrieval of esophageal foreign body avoided post-operative esophagotomy complications, cost of surgery, cost of post-operative treatment and surgical stress to animals.
One of these did require esophagotomy after failed endoscopic removal .
Overall, cases of foreign body ingestion requiring cervical or thoracic esophagotomy are rare.
We conclude that cervical esophagotomy
is a safe procedure for the removal of foreign bodies impacted in the cervical esophagus that are not amenable to endoscopic removal.
Esophagotomy wound was closed in two layers using chromic catgut No 2-0 by simple interrupted pattern and knots were placed inside lumen for mucosa and submucosa layer and cushing sutures for muscularis and tunica adventia.
Surgical treatment of cervical esophageal choke was successfully carried out through cervical esophagotomy in 22 animals and all cows recovered without any post-operative complications.
Mid cervical esophagotomy
and due post operative care resulted in a complete recovery and no complications were reported in six months of follow up period.
If conservative treatment failed, esophagotomy is indicated as reported by Sreenu and Sureshkumar (2001).
Table 1: Retrieval of foreign bodies in esophageal choke Treatment Conservative methods Surgery Foreign Animals Percutaneous Per oral Esophagotomy Rumenotomy bodies External removal massage by hand Beet root 6 3 2 1 Potato 2 1 1 Phytobezors 2 2 Jackfruit peel 2 1 1 Mango 3 3 Coconut shell 2 2 Tennis ball 1 1 Orange 2 2 Guava 1 1 Trichobezors 4 4 Total 25 6 9 9 1
Since the foreign body was in cervical esophagus decision was made for cervical esophagotomy.
In the presented cases, the bone was removed by gastrotomy instead of transthoracic esophagotomy since transthoracic oesopha- gotomy had some complications such as pyothorax, mediastinitis, pleural effusion (Sale and Williams, loc.cit), hydrothorax, pleuritis and continued non-healing wound or gall duct (Kyles, 2003).