Mathew, "Benign esophagorespiratory fistula
: a case series and a novel technique of definitive management," Diseases of the Esophagus, vol.
An esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF) is an anomalous connection between the esophagus and a portion of the respiratory tract.
Esophagorespiratory fistulas carry a high morbidity and mortality rate, and thus prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial.
Esophagorespiratory fistulas are commonly associated with malignancy or trauma; they are rarely seen in the immunocompromised patient.
[8.] Gerzic Z, Rakic S, Randjelovic T: Acquired benign esophagorespiratory fistula
. Report of consecutive cases.
Management of malignant esophagorespiratory fistula. Ann Thorac Surg 1978; 25: 516520.
Esophagorespiratory fistula: long-term results of palliative treatment with covered expandable metallic stents in 61 patients.
Palliative treatment of malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas with Gianturco-Z stents.
Acquired benign esophagorespiratory fistula
: Report of 16 consecutive cases.