esophageal varix

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to esophageal varix: variceal bleeding
Enlarge picture

esophageal varix

A tortuous dilatation of an esophageal vein, esp. in the distal portion. It results from any condition that causes portal hypertension, typically cirrhosis of the liver. Müller's maneuver; illustration


If an esophageal varix bursts, massive hemorrhage occurs, and the patient may die within minutes.


Medical treatment includes administration of a beta blocker, such as nadolol, with a nitrate, such as isosorbide, to lower portal pressures and decrease the likelihood of variceal bleeding. Invasive therapies include the injection of sclerosing agents or rubber banding of the dilated vein.

Patient care

Bleeding esophageal varices constitute a medical emergency, requiring immediate treatment to control hemorrhage and prevent hypovolemic shock. The patient’s vital signs, SaO2, ABGs, electrolyte and fluid volume balance, and level of consciousness are closely monitored. Intravenous access must be established promptly and fluid resuscitation, followed by transfusion and the administration of plasma are critical to early stabilization of the patient. Medical therapies also include the use of vasoconstricting drugs, such as vasopression. Endoscopy is used to identify the site of the ruptured vessels which may then be treated with sclerotherapy, ligation, or banding.

Surgical procedures to prevent rebleeding include portocaval or mesocaval shunts, portosystemic anastomosis, splenorenal shunting or liver transplantation. All procedures are explained, sensation messages provided, and reassurance and emotional support offered.

See also: varix
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

Esophageal varix

An enlarged vein of the esophagus. (Plural: esophageal varices.)
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In our study, we found that area under the ROC curve for PC/SD ratio was approximately 0.9 (0.88) indicating that this variable can be used as a simple noninvasive tool for determining the presence of esophageal varix. Many studies have proposed that the PC/SD ratio >909 has high reliability in predicting esophageal varices (3,14,19).
Noninvasive parameters can be used as a screening tool for identifying esophageal varix. Platelets to splenic diameter ratio is the most reliable marker for scrutinizing the patients who are at increased risk of developing esophageal varix.