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Erythrosin B is approved in the United States for food and ingested drugs with an ADI of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (Lipman, 1995).
Given the ADIs and estimated environmental concentrations, low absorption rates such as 1% could still result in body burdens in the nanomolar to micromolar range for erythrosin B and tartrazine.
The adverse effects reported by others coupled with the chemical similarities among tartrazine, sudan I, erythrosin B, and estradiol-17[beta] (E2) (Fig.1) led us to ask whether these colorants were potential EDCs,specifically xenoestrogens, acting not at pharmacological concentrations but rather within physiological concentrations.
Porcine insulin, EDTA, charcoal-dextran, E2 (E8875-IG), tamoxifen (T5648-1G), tartrazine (T0388-100G), erythrosin B (E9259-5G) and sudan I (103624-25G) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St.
After 24 h, the medium was changed to phenol red-free RPMI 1640 supplemented with 5% CS-FBS and 2% AbAm and either control (vehicle only), E2, tartrazine, erythrosin B, or sudan I (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 nM).
After 6 h, the transfection medium was replaced with phenol red-free RPMI medium 1640 plus 5% v/v CS-FBS and either control (vehicle only, E2 (0.1 nM), tartrazine (0.1 nM), erythrosin B (0.01 nM), or sudan 1 (1 nM), in triplicate.
Proliferative Effect of Tartrazine, Erythrosin B, and Sudan I in T47D Cells--Cell proliferation assays measure the proliferative effect of estrogen or xenoestrogens on estrogen-responsive cells in a hormone-stripped medium (Soto et al., 1995).
Difference in Proliferative Effect of Tartrazine, Erythrosin B, and Sudan I in Presence of Antagonist Tamoxifen (1 [micro]M) in T47D Cells--Tamoxifen competitively binds to ER in the presence of E2 or its analogues and inhibits cell proliferation in breast cancer cells (Jordan et al., 2001).
Activation of Estrogen-Receptor Mediated Luciferase Reporter Gene Expression by E2.Tartrazine, Erythrosin B, and Sudan I in T47D Cells Transiently Transfected with ERE.
We evaluated tartrazine, erythrosin B, and sudan I with cell proliferation and reporter gene assays.
3), all three investigated compounds showed significant response in the effective concentration range of 0.001 nM-10 nM, similar to the physiological concentration range of E2 and within estimated human exposure following consumption of the ADI of tartrazine and erythrosin B or wildlife exposure following drinking of tartrazine containing water.