and leukoplakia are the commonly occurring potentially malignant epithelial lesions of the oral cavity with increased malignant transformation rate as 15-20% progress to oral cancer.7
Non traumatic ulcers, white patch (leukoplakia), white patch with red erythematous areas (Erythroplakia
), long term non healing ulcers like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma with the presence of indurated margins are suspicious lesion which would make the lesion aggressive, cancerous & further investigation can be done.
on the Presented with right vocal cord was hoarseness for observed 1 month 8 77 M Chemotherapy Painless swelling for lung at the right adenocarcinoma parotid gland 6 months prior to parotid gland swelling 9 72 M Radical PET-CT scan prostatectomy revealed high 3 years ago, under 18-FDG uptake hormonotherapy at the nasopharynx.
The potential malignant lesions of the oral region are associated with alcohol drinking, tobacco and betel nut are erythroplakia
, leukoplakia, proliferative verrucousleukoplakia, etc (Table-1).
Leukoplakia and erythroplakia
of the oral mucosa--A brief overview.
Clinically, intraoral potentially malignant disorders (IOPMD), such as leukoplakia (LKP), erythroplakia
(EP), or mixed red and white lesions (erythroleukoplakia (ELKP) or speckled LKP), may precede the OSCC .
The clinical diagnosis of VX may be challenging, and the differential diagnosis should include benign lesions, such as squamous papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, and verruca vulgaris, potentially malignant disorders including leukoplakia and its subtypes and erythroplakia
, and malignant epithelial tumors, such as verrucous carcinoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma [1-4].
Known external risk factors are poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, tobacco exposure, erythroplakia
, and leukoplakia .
The clinical diagnosis was erythroplakia
. Trauma from food burn and inflammation of the salivary gland were both considered, but ultimately ruled out due to lack of symptoms and persistence of the lesion after 14 days.
In South-East Asian countries like India, another etiological factor is the use of areca nut leading to the occurrence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) which is an OPMD. Other OPMDs include leukoplakia, erythroplakia
, erosive lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus, and palatal lesions due to reverse smoking. Most OSCCs are preceded by OPMDs.
Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia
and lichen planus have been strongly associated with alcohol and tobacco use, increasing the risk of developing malignancy, although age, trauma and poor oral hygiene are pointed out as well (1-3).