erythema (er?i-the'ma ) [Gr. erythema, redness]
Reddening of the skin. Erythema is a common but nonspecific sign of skin irritation, injury, or inflammation. It is caused by dilation of superficial blood vessels in the skin. erythematicerythematous (er?i-the-mat'ik) (er?i-them'at-us), adjective
erythema ab igne
Localized erythema due to exposure to heat. Synonym: toasted skin syndrome.
A red, ring-shaped rash. See: illustration
erythema cenicientaErythema dyschromicum perstans.
erythema chronicum migrans Abbreviation: ECM
erythema dyschromicum perstans
Awaiting Don's def. Synonym: ashy dermatosis; erythema cenicienta
erythema elevatum diutinum
A form of vasculitis that affects the skin on the extensor surfaces of the forearms or legs. Iit is often seen in those infected with HIV.
Chronic vasculitis of the skin occurring in young women. Hard cutaneous nodules break down to form necrotic ulcers and leave atrophic scars. Synonym: Bazin disease
A mild, moderately contagious disease seen most commonly in school-age children. Synonym: fifth disease
The causative agent is human parvovirus B-19. Transmission is thought to be via respiratory secretions from infected patients; however, maternal-fetal transmission can occur and hemolytic disease of the newborn may result.
Patients experience a mild, brief illness; complaints include fever, malaise, headache, and pruritus. The characteristic erythema appears about 10 days later. Facial redness is similar to that which occurs when a child is slapped; however, circumoral redness is absent. Several days following initial erythema, a less distinct rash may appear on the extremities and trunk. The rash usually resolves within 1 week but may occur for several weeks when the patient is exposed to heat, cold, exercise, or stress. Adults may also experience arthralgia and arthritis although these symptoms are less common in children. In addition, mild transient anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia may develop.
Most patients require no specific therapy. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia may experience transient aplastic crisis (TAC). These patients should be warned of the danger of exposure to parvovirus B-19 infection, informed of the early signs and symptoms, and instructed to seek medical consultation promptly if exposure is suspected. Patients with TAC may develop a life-threatening anemia that requires immediate blood transfusion or partial exchange transfusion.
linear gingival erythema
A band of inflammation of the periodontium, appearing as a reddish gingival band about 2 to 3 mm in width. It is often associated with HIV/AIDS. Synonym: red band gingivitis
A form of erythema multiforme in which the center of the area fades, leaving elevated edges.
erythema migrans Abbreviation: EM
The hallmark of acute infection with Lyme disease. EM is an expanding red rash with a sharply defined border and (typically) central clearing. The rash usually appears within 3–32 days after a tick bite. The center of the rash is the site of inoculation. The causative agent is Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that may later invade the joints, the central nervous system, or the conducting system of the heart. Synonym: erythema chronicum migrans See: Lyme disease for illus
erythema multiforme Abbreviation: EM
A rash usually caused by an immune response to drugs or to an infection, esp. herpes simplex virus. It may express itself on the skin in multiform ways, including macules, papules, blisters, hives, and, characteristically, iris or target lesions. It may involve the palms and soles, the mucous membranes, the face, and the extremities. The disease is usually self-limited. The most severe (and occasionally fatal) variant of the illness, in which the eyes, mouth, and internal organs are involved, is called Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Synonym: Hebra disease
(1.) See: illustration
necrolytic migratory erythema Abbreviation: NME
Red, blistering or crusting patches that appear on the skin of the buttocks, groin, lower extremities, or perineum. The lesions are itchy and painful. NME is often associated with glucagonomas.
A tender, red, nodular rash on the shins that typically arises in conjunction with another illness, e.g., such as a streptococcal, fungal, or tubercular infection; inflammatory bowel disease; occult cancer; or sarcoidosis. Biopsies of the rash reveal inflammation of subcutaneous fat (panniculitis). Because the disease is often associated with other serious illnesses, a diagnostic search for an underlying cause usually is undertaken. In some patients, no cause is identified.
Therapy is directed at the cause, when it is known. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provide symptomatic relief for many patients.
erythema nodosum leprosum Abbreviation: ENL
A red, nodular vasculitic rash, which may be a complication of the treatment for leprosy. See: lepra
Treatment consists of withdrawing therapy against leprosy (clofazimine, steroids, thalidomide).
Erythema occurring in minute points, such as scarlet fever rash.
Redness of the skin or a rash resulting from toxic agents such as drugs.
erythema toxicum neonatorum
A benign, self-limited rash marked by firm, yellow-white papules or pustules from 1 to 2 mm in size present in about 50% of full-term infants. The cause is unknown, and the lesions disappear without need for treatment.
Erythema caused by contact with a toxic substance.
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