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Related to erythema dose: minimal erythema dose
the quantity to be administered at one time, as a specified amount of medication or a given quantity of radiation.
absorbed dose that amount of energy from ionizing radiations absorbed per unit mass of matter, expressed in rads.
air dose the intensity of an x-ray or gamma-ray beam in air, expressed in roentgens.
booster dose an amount of immunogen (vaccine, toxoid, or other antigen preparation), usually smaller than the original amount, injected at an appropriate interval after primary immunization to sustain the immune response to that immunogen.
curative dose (CD) a dose that is sufficient to restore normal health. See also median curative dose.
divided dose fractionated dose.
effective dose (ED) that quantity of a drug that will produce the effects for which it is administered. See also median effective dose.
erythema dose that amount of radiation that, when applied to the skin, causes erythema (temporary reddening).
fatal dose lethal dose.
fractionated dose a fraction of the total dose prescribed, as of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to be given at intervals, usually during a 24-hour period.
infective dose (ID) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will cause infection in susceptible subjects. See also median infective dose and tissue culture infective dose.
lethal dose (LD) that quantity of an agent that will or may be sufficient to cause death. See also median lethal dose and minimum lethal dose.
loading dose a dose of medication, often larger than subsequent doses, administered for the purpose of establishing a therapeutic level of the medication.
maintenance dose the amount of a medication administered to maintain a desired level of the medication in the blood.
maximum tolerated dose tolerance dose.
maximum permissible dose the largest amount of ionizing radiation that one may safely receive within a specified period according to recommended limits in current radiation protection guides. The specific amounts vary with age and circumstance.
median curative dose (CD50) a dose that abolishes symptoms in 50 per cent of test subjects.
median effective dose (ED50) a dose that produces the desired effect in 50 per cent of a population.
median infective dose (ID50) that amount of pathogenic microorganisms that will produce demonstrable infection in 50 per cent of the test subjects.
median lethal dose (LD50) the quantity of an agent that will kill 50 per cent of the test subjects; in radiology, the amount of radiation that will kill, within a specified period, 50 per cent of individuals in a large group or population.
median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will produce infection in 50 per cent of cell cultures inoculated.
minimum lethal dose
1. the amount of toxin that will just kill an experimental animal.
2. the smallest quantity of diphtheria toxin that will kill a guinea pig of 250-gm weight in 4 to 5 days when injected subcutaneously.
reference dose an estimate of the daily exposure to a substance for humans that is assumed to be without appreciable risk; it is calculated using the no observed adverse effect level and is more conservative than the older margin of safety.
skin dose (SD)
1. the air dose of radiation at the skin surface, comprising the primary radiation plus backscatter.
2. the absorbed dose in the skin.
threshold dose the minimum dose of ionizing radiation, a chemical, or a drug that will produce a detectable degree of any given effect.
threshold erythema dose (TED) the single skin dose that will produce, in 80 per cent of those tested, a faint but definite erythema within 30 days, and in the other 20 per cent, no visible reaction.
tissue culture infective dose (TCID) that amount of a pathogenic agent that will produce infection when inoculated on tissue cultures; used with a numeric qualifier.
tolerance dose the largest quantity of an agent that may be administered without harm. Called also maximum tolerated dose.
the minimum amount of x-rays or other form of radiation sufficient to produce erythema; historically, this dose was indicated by the Sabouraud meter as the B tint, the Holzknecht as 5(5H), the Hampson as 4, and the Kienbock as 10.
er·y·the·ma dose(er'i-thē'mă dōs)
The minimum dose of x-rays or other forms of radiation sufficient to produce erythema.
dose(dos) [Gr. dosis, a giving]
1. The amount of medicine or radiation administered.
2. The measurable exposure to an agent, e.g., to a poison, a quantity of radiation, or an irritant in the environment.
1. Radiation absorbed dose.
2. The amount of a substance ingested, inhaled, or taken up through any protective surface into the body
The intensity of radiation measured in air at the target.
Any dose, e.g., of a vaccine, administered to a neonate. The term is commonly used to describe a neonatal injection of hepatitis B vaccine.
A quantity of fluid or medicine given intravenously at a controlled, rapid rate.
booster doseSee: booster
collective doseSee: cumulative dose
1. The total medication or radiation dose to which an organism is exposed after repeated treatments.
2. The total ionizing radiation dose resulting from repeated exposures to an occupationally exposed individual over a period of time. This dose can be calculated for whole-body acute exposure or for specific organs or body parts, e.g., the hands.
3. The amount of a drug present in the body after repeated doses.
curative doseAbbreviation: CD
The dose required to heal an illness or disease.
The actual amount of radiation exposure at a specific point below the surface of the body.
The percentage by which blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is reduced during renal dialysis. Inadequate BUN reductions have been linked to increases in patient care costs, hospitalizations, and increased risk of death in patients with chronic renal failure. See: blood urea nitrogen
Fractional portions of a dose administered at specified intervals. For example, a patient may be given 2 g of cephalexin daily, divided as 500 mg orally every 6 hr.
A dose of one form of analgesic drug equivalent in pain-relieving effect to another analgesic. In pain control, this equivalence permits substitution of one analgesic to avoid undesired side effects from another.
equivalent doseAbbreviation: HT
The biologically active dose of radiation. The damage that a particular absorbed radiation dose will have on living cells and tissues.
erythema doseMinimal erythema dose.
A dose that kills.See: median lethal dose
The number of infectious organisms, esp. bacteria or viruses, that will cause disease in a healthy organism.
The dose of a substance that results in the death of cells, tissues, or the organism.
lethal dose lowAbbreviation: LDlo
The lowest dose of a substance that will kill at least one exposed organism.
The dose required to sustain a desired effect.
The largest dose that is safe to administer.
maximum permissible doseAbbreviation: MPD
The highest dose of radiation to which a person may be exposed over 1 year.
CAUTION!Each U.S. state sets limits on exposure to ionizing radiation. For example, for an adult over 18, the MPD is typically 5 rem (50 mSv). For a pregnant female, the MPD is limited to 0.5 rem (5 mSv).
maximum tolerated doseAbbreviation: MTD
The most extensive exposure to a treatment that a patient may receive before he or she experiences unbearable side effects.
mean marrow doseAbbreviation: MMD
An estimated measure of average radiation exposure given to the blood-forming progenitor cells of the bone marrow, e.g., in whole body radiation treatment. The percentage of active bone marrow in the useful beam is multiplied by the average absorbed dose.
median curative dose
A dose that cures half of all treated patients.
median infective doseAbbreviation: ID50
An infective dose that causes disease in half the subjects exposed to it.
median lethal doseAbbreviation: LD50
The amount of a substance, bacterium, or toxin that will kill 50% of the animals exposed to it. Dose is usually calculated on amount of material given per gram or kilogram of body weight or amount per unit of body surface area.See: minimum lethal dose
minimal erythema dose, minimum erythema dose Abbreviation: MED
The shortest exposure to ultraviolet radiation that produces reddening of the skin within 1 to 6 hr and disappears in 24 hr. The minimal erythemal dose is used to calculate the duration of therapeutic exposure to ultraviolet light. For treatment using a “hot” ultraviolet lamp (UV-A or UV-B), the dose is calculated at a distance of 30 in. The minimal erythemal dose for “cold” ultraviolet (UV-C) is standardized at 30 to 38 sec at a distance of 1 in. Synonym: erythema dose; threshold dose See: table
CAUTION!Burning, edema, and peeling occur at doses at or above the second degree erythemal dose.
|Suberythemal dose (SED)||No erythema|
|Minimal erythemal dose (MED)||Smallest dose that produces erythema within 1 to 6 hr and disappears within 24 hr|
|First degree erythemal dose (E1)||Erythema lasts for 1 to 3 days. Some scaling of the skin is present. E1 is approximately 2.5 times the MED.|
|Second degree erythemal dose (E2)||Erythema with associated edema, peeling, and pigmentation. E2 is approximately 5 times the MED.|
|Third degree erythemal dose (E3)||Severe erythema and burning with associated blistering, peeling, and edema. E3 is approximately 10 times the MED.|
The smallest effective dose.
minimum lethal dose
The smallest amount of a substance capable of producing death.See: median lethal dose
1. The number of nurses in the work force divided by the population of the community at large.
2. The number of nurses available for clinical responsibilities, divided by the quantity of those duties.
percentage depth dose
In radiation therapy, the ratio of the absorbed dose at a given depth to the absorbed dose at a fixed reference depth. It is dependent on four factors: energy, depth, field size, and source-to-skin distance.
An initial, large dose given to provide a high blood level as soon as possible.
1. Energy (joules) deposited by radiation in 1 kg of body tissue.
2. The exposure of a biological system to radiation, measured in rems or sieverts.
3. Radioactivity, measured in curies or becquerels.
4.See: radiation absorbed dose
radiation absorbed doseAbbreviation: rad
The quantity of ionizing radiation, measured in rad or gray (Gy), absorbed by any material, e.g., a person, per unit mass of matter. One Gy equals 100 rad.Synonym: absorbed dose
In cardioversion and defibrillation, the energy in joules selected to terminate an abnormal heart rhythm.
A radiation dose to the skin including secondary radiation from backscatter.
A dose containing not quite enough of a toxin or noxious substance to cause death.
stress doseStress dosage.
1. A low dose of a medication given to assess its safety or tolerability.
2. A small dose given to determine its precise effect on living tissues.
The dose required to produce the desired effect.
threshold doseSee: minimal erythema dose
tissue culture infective doseAbbreviation: TCID50
The dose that will produce a cytopathic effect in 50% of the cultures inoculated.
tissue tolerance dose
The largest dose, esp. of radiation, that will not cause obvious or immediate disfunction in tissues.
The dose of a drug or physical agent, e.g., radiation, that will not cause perceptible or immediate injury. This dose will vary among individuals.
A poisonous dose.
A dose of medicine prepared in an individual packet for convenience, safety, or monitoring.Synonym: monodose