In lab tests, moose saliva dabbed onto grasses two or four times could lower the concentrations of the toxin ergovaline
by 40 to 70 percent over the course of two months, Tanentzap and colleagues report July 23 in Biology Letters.
The first phase includes determining the trial dose of internal fungal Lolitrem B and the Ergovaline
on feed provided to camels that are not pregnant and are currently living in the environmental condition of the emirate.
Adsorption rates for ergine, ergotamine and ergovaline
were recorded at 56%, 86% and 90%, respectively, in gastric juice and 68%, 85% and 86% in rumen fluid.
Elimination of ergovaline
from a grass-Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte.
This was a surprise because the most common alkaloid in tall fescue, ergovaline
, seems to be too large a molecule to be excreted this way, so maybe it's broken down into smaller byproducts.
Isolation and quantification of ergovaline
from Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) infected with the fungus Acremonium coenophialum by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.
However, Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR indicated lolitrem B and ergovaline
biosynthesis genes, ltmG and lpsA, did not alter significantly in response to water deficit, which suggested the mechanism responsible for increased water deficit tolerance did not involve changes in known alkaloid levels (Hahn et al.
Since the late 1990s, strategies have been developed to find endophyte--associations which have positive agronomic characteristics and little or no lolitrem and ergovaline
Recently, Fletcher (2005) reported that ergovaline
concentrations in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.
Primary standard solutions of ergotamine (internal standard) and ergovaline
One alternative management strategy might be to use a nontoxic endophyte that has negligible production of the toxic alkaloids, such as ergovaline
, that are reported to cause negative effects on animals (West et al.
In addition, ergovaline
, the primary alkaloid among the ergot alkaloids produced by Neotyphodium, has been quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Rottinghaus et al.