ergot alkaloid

ergot alkaloid

one of a large group of alkaloids derived from a common fungus, Claviceps purpurea. The alkaloids comprise three groups: the amino acid alkaloids typified by ergotamine, the dihydrogenated amino acid alkaloids such as dihydroergotamine, and the amine alkaloids such as ergonovine.
indications Ergotamine and dihydroergotamine are less effective oxytocics than ergonovine. Therefore ergonovine, given orally or intravenously, is currently used in obstetrics to treat or prevent postpartum uterine atony and to complete an incomplete or missed abortion. Ergotamine is prescribed to relieve migraine headache. It acts by reducing the amplitude of arterial pulsations in the external carotid branches of the cranial arteries resulting from stimulation of vasoconstrictive alpha receptors, and it may also act as a serotonin antagonist. See also missed abortion.
contraindications Peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, renal or hepatic dysfunction, and sepsis are contraindications for ergot alkaloids. Pregnancy prohibits their use because they may cause contractions of the uterus, decreased blood flow to the fetus, and fetal death.
adverse effects Ergot poisoning may result from prolonged or excessive use of the drug or accidental ingestion of contaminated grain. Signs of toxicity are thirst, diarrhea, dizziness, chest pain, abnormal and variable rate of cardiac contraction, nausea and vomiting, digital paresthesia, severe cramping, and seizures. Tissue anoxia and gangrene of the extremities may occur as a result of prolonged vasoconstriction if poisoning is severe.
References in periodicals archive ?
A semi-synthetic ergot alkaloid, Methergine is indicated for routine management of uterine atony, hemorrhage, and subinvolution of the uterus following delivery of the placenta, and for control of uterine hemorrhage in the second stage of labor following delivery of the anterior shoulder.
Maximum ergot alkaloid production was achieved at pH 5 (2 mg/l) with maximum incubation period of 21 days.
Aspergillusfumigatus and Penicillium commune of the order Eurotiales are also capable of producing ergot alkaloid (Katy et al.
The first pure ergot alkaloid was isolated in 1920, but only in 1925 was ergotamine used to successfully treat a case of severe and intractable migraine via subcutaneous injection (Rothlin, 1955; Stoll, 1965).
Triptan and ergot alkaloid medications are the two main migraine-specific treatments.
Ergot alkaloid preparations are contraindicated in pregnancy because of their dose-related developmental toxicity and oxytocic properties.
Ergot alkaloid toxicity has not yet been demonstrated, but potential nutritional and economic losses could have substantial impact on public health.
Valve dissease associated with ergot alkaloid use: Echocardiographic and pathologic correlations.
This fungus imparts hardiness to the plant, but it also produces ergot alkaloid toxins that cause fescue toxicosis in grazing animals.
Bromocriptine is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid that binds to receptors on normal and tumor lactotrophs and inhibits the synthesis and secretion of prolactin.
Differences in total ergot alkaloid concentrations of the fed hays were verified using the ELISA test (N.