Hierarchy in language is created by Merge; assuming that hierarchy in other systems is created by some other operation would be multiplying theoretical elements beyond necessity: the so-called "essential properties" of Merge, combination of two elements and labeling of the resulting structure for the purposes of further computations (Reuland, 2009: 206-207) are actually epiphenomenal
. It would take a special stipulation to restrict the power of the generative algorithm to binary structures (stipulations derived from the LCA or Binding Theory, in most cases, see Kayne, 1984, 1994), should we attempt to impoverish FL to get only the essential, binarity would certainly not be in this set.
What seemed to have bothered Aune were the ways that Marx seemed to be maintaining a rigid theoretical line between the core, material lives of workers that were related to their economic conditions, and the superstructure that treated ideology and rhetoric as epiphenomenal
ethnic, racial and class divisions that leave Farrington and Bloom on the far side of respectable manhood are not epiphenomenal
or isolated incidents but the structural effects of colonialism and the double-bind of colonial manhood.
Easily dismissed as epiphenomenal
, such stylistic changes are reminiscent of the early days of China's momentous transformation in the 1970s and 1980s.
." (72) Using data from all fifty states, Brown
Economic analyses are rebutted in less than half a page--'[a] Marxist approach is not very useful for explaining variation, insofar as it generally takes class conflict as endemic by definition; treats ethnic, religious and nationalist identifications as epiphenomenal
; and considers Leviathan's leaders the handmaidens of the bourgeoisie' (p.
Meter, when it comes to politics, is epiphenomenal
Results of the study confirmed the authors' suspicions, suggesting that imagined experiences are not merely epiphenomenal
- that is, our evaluations of mental imagery bear a direct relationship to our performance on perceptual and cognitive tasks in the real world.
The inexorable result of this distinction is to "rob surface phenomena of their significance" as they become residual, epiphenomenal
Whether treated as epiphenomenal
or superstructural, the objects of study dominating post-World War II American Studies--"myths and symbols" to use a convenient tag--hardly warranted the attention of serious scholars dealing with urgent issues of global political instability, economic crisis, war, genocide, famine and drought, and the spread of infectious diseases.
(Ochsner, 2002: Wager, 2008) On the face of it, these experiments suggest that our consciously felt intentions might possibly influence the activities of our brains: that our psychologically described experiential aspects, far from being the epiphenomenal
by-product of physically described brain activity, as required by nineteenth century classical physical theory, could themselves causally affect the course of brain events.
By focusing on the deeply internalized, often unconscious (as Martin Munoz would have it), dynamics of our own academic and scholarly discourses in particular (and not just in the historical consciousness of the public at large), Grosfoguel explores how the dichotomy feeding Islamophobia has been constituted in our epistemologies over centuries by the very structures of the emerging capitalist world-system variously shaped by class as well as racial and gender dichotomies that are generative (and not just merely epiphenomenal
) in relation to the capitalist world-system.