A population study of epigean
and subterranean Potamolithus snails from southeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae).
A relevant topic in the evolution of this group is the invasion of freshwater (Ashelby et al., 2012), since typically freshwater epigean
palaemonids, such as Macrobrachium, are dependent to a certain degree of marine or brackish waters to complete their larval development.
Caine, "A comparative ecology of epigean
and hypogean crayfish (Crustacea: Cambaridae) from northwestern Florida," American Midland Naturalist, vol.
Morphology and reproduction of the cavefish Trichomycterus chaberti and the related epigean
carolinae thrives in epigean
waters, the species is regarded as a stygophile and some individuals spend their entire life in underground streams (Burr et al., 2001).
Second, numerous epigean
fishes, including piscivores, have been observed within Key Spring Cave (Kuhajda and Mayden 2001).
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF AN EPIGEAN
CRAYFISH IN TUMBLING CREEK CAVE.
Senna reticulata has an epigean
germination mode, with foliaceous cotyledons (Hladik & Miquel, 1990).
Early attempts to describe the spatial extent of hyporheic zones were based largely on the vertical and lateral distributions of epigean
(derived from the surficial river bed environment) or hypogean (derived from the true groundwater environment) fauna.
(1984, 1986b) demonstrated that fungal and bacterial biomass on POM was insufficient to meet the carbon needs of an epigean
Evolution and genetics of epigean
and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces).
For example, crustaceans have been very successful with 12 orders present in the subterranean environment and the number of subterranean crustacean species may equal or exceed that of epigean
ones in the same area; conversely, only a few of the huge number of freshwater aquatic insect families have subterranean representatives (Gibert and Deharveng, 2002).