and epiphytic biomass progressively decreased along a gradient from open towards closed habitats (habitat categories II to VII; see Fig.
Some of the most characteristic mosses of the taiga are the epigeal
species Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Dicranum scoparium, and Ptilium crista-castrensis.
In the classification of Vogel (1980), it was adopted the type Macaranga for seedlings of Serjania communis, which consist of phanerocotylar and epigeal
seedlings, and foliaceous cotyledons.
This study aimed to determine the number of epigeal
nests and assess the soil turning capacity of termites in cultivated pasture environments and in a native vegetation area.
Mass-length relationships of epigeal
arthropod predators in arable land (Araneae, Chilopoda, Coleoptera).
Seeds with epigeal
emergence, such as soybeans, where the cotyledons emerge aboveground, are more subject to crusting of the soil surface than seeds of plants such as grasses that have hypogeal emergence.
EFFECT OF CONTROLLED BURNING ON EPIGEAL
ARTHROPODS IN TUPAC AMARU SAIS GRASSLANDS, JUNIN, PERU
Whereas Asiatic lily seed is epigeal
(putting up a leaf above ground right away and then forming the bulblet), seeds of martagons and some other species germinate in a hypogeal manner.
Fruit loculicidal to septicidal capsules, berries, drupes (with 1 or several pits), or occasionally dry and indehiscent; seeds small, testa usually single layered, with cells isodiametric to strongly elongated, sometimes winged or tailed, sometimes mucilaginous on wetting; embryo fusiform or spatulate, white or less commonly green, with 2 cotyledons, to extremely reduced and undifferentiated; endosperm cellular, well developed, with haustoria at both ends; germination epigeal
For example, the world's subdeserts have a rainwater-use efficiency coefficient for epigeal
production of about 4 kg dry matter/ha per year per mm rainfall.
Greenslade, 1964; Luff, 1975; Southwood, 1978; Halsall and Wratten, 1988), pitfall traps continue to be used in ecological studies of epigeal
arthropods such as carabids, because the traps are inexpensive and require a minimum amount of labor (Halsall and Wratten, 1988).
Although this termite is a pest of wood in service, its epigeal
foraging behavior and arboreal nesting habits allow for easy detection (Scheffrahn et al.