Fluoroscopic guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections: a prospective evaluation of epidurography
contrast patterns and anatomical review of the epidural space.
7] and Ackerman III and Ahmad  reported that ventral spread of epidurography was associated with improvements in the pain score after interlaminar, transforaminal, and/or caudal epidural injections.
conducted a study of 22 cases of caudal epidurography following injection of 5 mL of contrast media conducted with the needle positioned toward the affected side in CESI .
Direct radiography, myelography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, discography, scintigraphy, venography and epidurography
can be used in order to examine lumbar vertebrae.
After sterile skin preparation and local anesthesia, 18 gauge Tohuey epidural needle was either inserted in midline interlaminar L4-L5 or L5-S1 level (Group A) or advanced in sacral hiatus (Group B) guided by loss of resistance and confirmed upon epidurography on injecting 2 ml nonionic contrast in increments of 0.
Epidurography showed dorsal spread in all patients of both the groups.
Fluoroscopically guided cervical interlaminar epidural injections using the midline approach: an analysis of epidurography
On the epidurography
performed before the application, it was seen that contrast substance which was given at the D12-L1 level rapidly rose to the foramen magnum level (Figure 2).
The typical amount of contrast or contrast-saline mixture used for either cervical or lumbar interlaminar epidurography is 4 cc to 5 cc (less in nerve blocks; see below).
Epidurography and therapeutic epidural injections: technical considerations and experience with 5334 cases.
The presence and spatial orientation of this tissue has been investigated by computed tomography (CT) epidurography
An analysis of postoperative epidural analgesia failure by commuted tomography epidurography