Epidurography is always performed during PEN procedures, but there is insufficient evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure.
Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to determine the correlation between epidurography contrast patterns and clinical outcomes.
Fluoroscopic guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections: a prospective evaluation of epidurography
contrast patterns and anatomical review of the epidural space.
Direct radiography, myelography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, discography, scintigraphy, venography and epidurography
can be used in order to examine lumbar vertebrae.
After sterile skin preparation and local anesthesia, 18 gauge Tohuey epidural needle was either inserted in midline interlaminar L4-L5 or L5-S1 level (Group A) or advanced in sacral hiatus (Group B) guided by loss of resistance and confirmed upon epidurography
on injecting 2 ml nonionic contrast in increments of 0.5 ml.
On the epidurography
performed before the application, it was seen that contrast substance which was given at the D12-L1 level rapidly rose to the foramen magnum level (Figure 2).
The typical amount of contrast or contrast-saline mixture used for either cervical or lumbar interlaminar epidurography
is 4 cc to 5 cc (less in nerve blocks; see below).
Myelography and epidurography
. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, v.23, n.2, p.307-329, 1993.
The presence and spatial orientation of this tissue has been investigated by computed tomography (CT) epidurography
An analysis of postoperative epidural analgesia failure by commuted tomography epidurography
 and Ackerman III and Ahmad  reported that ventral spread of epidurography
was associated with improvements in the pain score after interlaminar, transforaminal, and/or caudal epidural injections.