Once it reached the target site, a second epidurogram was obtained by injecting 3 mL of the contrast agent for the identification of filling defects or cutoff signs surrounding the target area.
In the present study, we found that the clinical outcomes of lumbar PEN were correlated with the presence of extraforaminal contrast spread on the final epidurogram obtained after adhesiolysis.
(c) The first epidurogram shows a filling defect at the left L5-S1 foramen.
The location of nerve roots and the safe triangle were confirmed with the use of an epidurogram
with radio opaque dye (Telebrix, Gluerbet, Aulnay-sousBois, France).
These differences, which are frequently observed, can be preemptively visualized by an epidurogram
that is traced by administering an opaque object.
Caudal epidurals: the accuracy of blind needle placement and the value of a confirmatory epidurogram
. European Spine Journal.
A smaller amount will not provide sufficient contrast for an epidurogram
to evaluate for adhesions or distribution of injectate.
* The methodology described for fluoroscopy fails to convince that it was in fact helpful in confirming epidural placement of the catheter, as there is no comment as to whether a lateral view was performed to confirm that the catheter was within the vertebral canal, or that an epidurogram
with contrast was performed to confirm even epidural placement.
A radiopaque contrast dye (Ultravist, Bayer Korea, Seoul, Korea) was injected via the introducer needle to confirm epidural placement of the needle, and epidural filling defects were identified by the epidurogram. The filling defects were further compared with the MRI findings and the dominant symptom of the patient.
The final epidurogram after the procedure was saved and the presence of transforaminal dye spread was also evaluated.
Hilton, "Caudal epidurals: the accuracy of blind needle placement and the value of a confirmatory epidurogram
," European Spine Journal, vol.
During the procedure, the physician performing the procedure and the physicians viewing the epidurogram
could not be blinded to the side (i.e., medial versus lateral) of the needle approach.