When administered epidurally
, it is rapidly absorbed into epidural fat and the systemic circulatory system, resulting in minimum contact time with spinal opioid receptors.
Caption: Figure 1--Use of infrared thermography to measure the average surface temperature of the lumbosacral region of each rabbit after epidurally
administration of meloxicam (0.2mg [kg.sup.-1]).
Hertler et al., "Cortical stimulation mapping using epidurally
implanted thin-film microelectrode arrays," Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol.
Analgesic, behavioural and cardiopulmonary effects of epidurally
injected medetomidine (Domitor) in goats.
BDC, a privately held biopharmaceutical company, is currently conducting a Phase II placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor, etanercept, epidurally
administered to patients with sciatica.
ORLANDO -- Glucocorticosteroids that are epidurally
administered produce a transient increase in fasting blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes, according to data presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Pain Medicine.
Swindon & Marlborough NHS Trust has since admitted liability for her being administered Bupivacaine, a potent anaesthetic, intravenously rather than epidurally
Previous reports of mix-ups between intravenous (IV) and epidural medications have often focused on the risk for harm if an IV product is inadvertently given epidurally
(or intrathecally) (Hew, Cyna, & Simmons, 2003; ISMP, 1998, September; ISMP, 2000; ISMP, 2006, April; JCAHO, 2005; Landow, 1985; Salvolini, Bonetti, & Ciritella, 1996; Sigg & Leiken, 1999).
Delivery methods depend on the type of drug being administered, but may include: orally (by mouth), intravenously (either nurse or patient controlled [PCA]), intramuscularly (injection directly into muscle tissue), transdermally (adhesive patches on skin), epidurally
(catheter into the spinal column), intrathecally (spinal), subcutaneously (under the skin), topically (on the skin), parentally (within food mixture directly into vein), rectally (suppositories), sublingually (under the tongue), and intranasally (nasal spray; Carpenter, 1997; Cheever, 1999; Cherny, et al., 1995; Hawthorn & Redmond, 1998; McQuay, 1999; Meyers, 1997; Miller, Miller, & Jolley, 2001; Stegman, 2001).
(7) The present study was done to compare the analgesic and sedative effects of these drugs when used epidurally
as neuraxial adjuvants with ropivacaine.
Kim, "Therapeutic effect of epidurally
administered lipo-prostaglandin E1 agonist in a rat spinal stenosis model," Korean Journal of Pain, vol.
Comparison of analgesia provided by lidocaine, lidocaine-morphine or lidocaine-tramadol delivered epidurally
in dogs following orchiectomy.