bassiana, conidial adherence to hydrophobic surfaces (like the epicuticle
wax of P.
The thin cell membrane layer, also referred to as the epicuticle
, consists of a protein matrix and a lipid layer which strongly contribute to the hydrophobicity and lubricity of virgin hair (Lodge 2006).
 Pedrini, N., Crespo, R., and Juarez, M.P., 2007, "Biochemistry of insect epicuticle
degradation by entomopathogenic fungi," Comp.
The fracture part has a large fiber-chip and tear where the matrix of the elytra epicuticle
broke along the crack direction but did not completely separate.
After landing on the host, the conidia started to penetrate the epicuticle
by forming an appressorium (stage 1).
An arthropod completely covered in an almost impermeable epicuticle
wax layer would have the great advantage of losing very little water through transpiration, but it would be unable to breathe because the oxygen molecule is larger than the water molecule.
Insect cuticle is a composite material consisting of a thin lipid-protein-rich epicuticle
covering the bulky procuticle.
Kaolin is an aluminum silicate, nonabrasive dust that when activated by acid and heat treatments has a high specific surface that absorbs the wax in the epicuticle
of insect pests of stored grains (EBELING, 1971).
contains a wax layer, which prevents water movement through the cuticle.
Produced by the underlying epidermal cells, the cuticle is composed of four layers (from outer to inner): epicuticle
, exocuticle, endocuticle, and membranous layer (Travis and Friberg, 1963b; Raz et al., 2002).
A new technique for examining the exomorphology of the scorpion epicuticle
is described that utilizes the fluorescent property of scorpion cuticle.