In reality, neurons aren't simply nodes, but instead there is a large diversity of neuron types (with different behaviors), and computation is performed within the neuron cell bodies, within the axons, and within the dendrites , Neurons don't communicate just through electrical signals either--around 10 common neurotransmitters and 200 uncommon neuromodulators are implicated in neuronal interaction, and neurons can even communicate without direct synaptic communication, such as via ephaptic
coupling (nerve fiber coupling via local electric fields) and via chemical diffusion in the extracellular space  .
Demyelinated nerve fibres have 'ephaptic
' electrical transmission, where adjacent fibres activate each other.
Postsynaptic membrane hemifusion , ephaptic transmission between the postsynaptic terminals, and a mechanism operating through extracellular matrix space are the possible candidate mechanisms.
Additional mechanisms for the interpostsynaptic functional LINKs are also possible including ephaptic transmission .
Anastassiou CA, Perin R, Markram H, Koch C  Ephaptic
coupling of cortical neurons.
This unusual connection is called ephaptic
transmission or cross-talk .
Chronic damage or excitation of nociceptive afferent fibers from compressive collagen deposition may develop into spontaneous (ectopic) firing oscillating at frequencies sufficient to initiate cross (ephaptic
) excitation of sympathetic and sensory fibers (myelinated A-delta and non-myelinated C fibers) within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the central nervous system.
The contributions address the modeling of gene expression, dendritic growth, synaptic mechanics, cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, and nonsynaptic (ephaptic
A recent hypothesis based on evidence from carp retina holds that currents through Cx26 hemichannels on horizontal cell dendritic processes serve to modulate calcium currents and related photoreceptor transmitter release via an ephaptic
current within the synaptic region.
They occasionally occur in the absence of a trigger. In the upper extremity, these seizures usually begin with tetany-like spasm of the hand, flexion of the elbow, and adduction at the shoulder. Transaxonal ephaptic
transmission may explain the spinal origin of these sensorimotor seizures. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is extremely effective in suppressing painful tonic seizures.
transmission in chronically damaged peripheral nerves.