enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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determination of the purity of a substance or the amount of any particular constituent of a mixture.
biological assay bioassay; determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing the effects it has on animals with those of a reference standard.
CH50 assay a test of total complement activity as the capacity of serum to lyse a standard preparation of sheep red blood cells coated with antisheep erythrocyte antibody. The reciprocal of the dilution of serum that lyses 50 per cent of the erythrocytes is the whole complement titer in CH50 units per milliliter of serum.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant (antigen or antibody) and an immunoadsorbent (antigen or antibody bound to a solid support). A variety of methods are used for measuring the unknown concentration, such as either competitive binding between the labeled reactant and unlabeled unknown or a sandwich technique in which the unknown antigen binds both the immunoadsorbent and labeled antibody. One of the uses of ELISA is to screen blood for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus; a positive result indicates probable exposure to the virus and possibly that the virus is in the blood. Since false-positives can occur, a back-up test is used to confirm positive findings.
 ELISA: With antigen capture ELISA, the wells are coated with antibody to the virus. The sample containing virus (1) is added and, after washing several times, enzyme conjugated to an antibody to the virus is added (2). Finally, after a further cycle of washing, the enzyme's substrate (3) is added. A colored product is formed if the viral antigen is present in the sample (4). From Hart and Shears, 1997.
microhemagglutination assay–Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) a Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay using microtechniques; used in the detection of syphilis.
radioreceptor assay a radioligand assay in which a radiolabeled hormone is used to measure the concentration of specific cellular receptors for the hormone in tissue specimens, an example being radioassay of estrogen receptors in breast tissue.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay thyroid-stimulating hormone test.
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) a treponemal antigen serologic test for syphilis using tanned sheep red blood cells coated with antigen from the Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum and treated patient serum; it is similar in sensitivity and specificity to the FTA-ABS test. This test is not useful for individuals who have had syphilis in the past.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

en·zyme-linked im·mu·no·sor·bent as·say (ELISA),

an in vitro binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate (rather than a radioactive substance) serve as the indicator system; in positive test results, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; tests are made in wells in polystyrene or other material to which immunoglobulins or antigenic preparations readily adsorb; the enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive test results remains in the well as part of the antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. An immunoenzymatic assay used to measure antigens and antibodies which approaches the sensitivity of RIA
Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster ‘turn-around time’, and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

en·zyme-linked im·mu·no·sor·bent as·say

(ELISA) (en'zīm-lingkt im'yū-nō-sōr'bĕnt as'ā)
A sensitive method for serodiagnosis of specific infectious diseases; an in vitro competitive binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate rather than a radioactive substance serve as the indicator system; in positive test results, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; the enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive test results remains as part of the antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

a procedure for measuring the formation of ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN complexes adsorbed to a solid surface. An ENZYME system is linked to the complex so that after washing, the amount of enzyme activity is proportional to the amount of antigen or antibody present.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

A diagnostic blood test used to screen patients for AIDS or other viruses. The patient's blood is mixed with antigen attached to a plastic tube or bead surface. A sample of the patient's blood serum is added, and excess proteins are removed. A second antibody coupled to an enzyme is added, followed by a chemical that will cause a color reaction that can be measured by a special instrument.
Mentioned in: AIDS Tests, Giardiasis
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of West Nile virus antibodies in domestic mammals.
5 December 2013 - Finnish diagnostics firm Biohit Oyj (HEL:BIOBV) will become a global distributor of US Dynex Technologies' two-microplate DS2, four-microplate DSX and 12-microplate Agility automated ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) processing systems, used with its GastroPanel test, the pair said yesterday.
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) was used to detect RVFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in 26 samples.
burgdorferi antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Only 0.5% tested positive by Western blot, reflecting clinically insignificant past exposures to the microbe (Infect.
Twelve of 14 patients tested for tetanus immunity on admission by a standard indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay had antibody levels lower than the cutoff value for protection (<0.1 IU/mL).
Screening by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with inactivated NiV antigen was done at the Research Institute for Veterinary Science in Bogor, Indonesia.
In the German laboratory, the anti-PA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result was negative, but specific antibodies against lethal factor of B.
These specimens were negative for common foodborne bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter) and enteric viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, and norovirus) (IDEIA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Dako Cytomation, Ely, UK).

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