enzootic marasmus

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enzootic marasmus

An obsolete, nonspecific term for poor development in grazing animals, most commonly due to cobalt deficiency, but which also may be due to nutritional deficiencies of copper, selenium and vitamin D, as well as internal parasitosis.


peculiar to or present constantly in a location. See also endemic.

enzootic abortion of ewes
late abortion in ewes caused by Chlamydophila abortus introduced to a flock by carrier sheep. In many countries one of the most common causes of abortion. Characterized by late term abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak lambs. Infection occurs by ingestion and the major source is the placenta and uterine discharge of aborting ewes and the associated contaminated pasture. Infected animals abort, or give birth to weak neonates, at the next pregnancy following infection, as the result of a placentitis.
enzootic arthrogryposis/hydranencephaly
infection of the pregnant cow, ewe or goat doe with the Akabane virus causes congenital defects of the nervous system of the fetus.
enzootic ataxia
a disease of unweaned lambs caused by a nutritional deficiency of copper and characterized by an absence of myelin in tissues of the central nervous system, and a clinical picture of incoordination and terminally recumbency and death from starvation. Called also Gingin rickets, renguera, swayback, lamkruis.
enzootic balanoposthitis
an endemic inflammation of the prepuce and penis of castrated male sheep. It is caused by Corynebacterium renale but the clinical disease appears only when there is lush pasture and a consequent high alkalinization of the urine, and also a high intake of estrogens from the pasture. There is a concurrent vulvitis in ewes and bulls may be affected. There is swelling, scabby ulceration and inflammation of the exterior and the interior of the prepuce and the glans penis. Affected wethers dribble urine, show pain at the site and may become flyblown. Called also pizzle rot, sheath rot.
enzootic bovine adenomatosis
enzootic bovine arthrogryposis
see akabane virus disease.
enzootic bovine leukopsis
see bovine viral leukosis.
enzootic calcinosis
a poisoning by the plant Solanum malacoxylon causes a significant increase in calcium absorption and deposition in tissues. The characteristic clinical signs are stiffness of the limbs and the back, and unwillingness to stand up if lying down, or to lie down if standing up. Identical diseases are caused by a grass Trisetum flavescens, and by herbs Nierembergia veitchii, Solanum linneaneum, S. torvum and Cestrum diurnum. Called also enteque seco, Manchester wasting disease, Naalehu, espichamento.
enzootic equine ataxia
see enzootic equine incoordination (below).
enzootic equine incoordination
a series of diseases with very strong clinical similarity. The syndrome is one of chronic incoordination in young horses associated with a variety of pathological processes in the cervical spinal cord. These include a degenerative myeloencephalopathy of unknown origin, compression of the cord by overflexion of the neck, or by stenosis of the vertebral canal, and an inflammatory lesion in the cord caused by Sarcocystis spp. Affected horses are quite unsafe to ride even though some of them do not get to be too badly affected. Surgical intervention in appropriate cases is now a practical reality. Called also wobbler.
enzootic ethmoidal tumor
this disease has been a problem in cattle in Brazil and Sweden. Epistaxis and nasal obstruction are the important findings. The paranasal sinuses may also be invaded.
enzootic hematuria
a disease characterized by hemangiomatous lesions in the bladder of cattle, causing the intermittent passage of heavily blood-stained urine. The blood loss may be sufficiently severe to cause a fatal hemorrhagic anemia. Caused by chronic intake of ptaquiloside from Pteridium spp., Cheilanthes sieberi, Onychium contiguum; most cases are obviously related to the long-term ingestion of bracken. See also pteridium aquilinum.
enzootic icterus
a syndrome which includes the hepatopathies of grazing animals. Includes facial eczema, toxemic jaundice and toxipathic hepatitis.
enzootic intestinal adenocarcinoma
a disease of sheep in New Zealand, Iceland, Norway and of cows in New Zealand.
enzootic marasmus
see cobalt nutritional deficiency.
enzootic muscular dystrophy
a disease which is due to a nutritional deficiency of vitamin E or selenium and occurs in calves, lambs and foals. There is a sudden onset, commonly after exercise. The calf may drop dead or show dyspnea, a frothy nasal discharge and a rapid and irregular heartbeat, all signs of acute heart failure. Less acute cases show recumbency with inability to rise, and increased respiratory rate. Less severe cases still are able to stand and walk but are weak and dyspneic. Although the pathogenesis is an acute myopathy there is no myoglobinuria except in unusual circumstances in yearling male cattle.
enzootic nasal granuloma
a form of chronic nasal obstruction which occurs most commonly in dairy cows of the Channel Islands breeds. The disease is a chronic dyspnea with stertorous breathing due to partial obstruction of both nasal cavities by eosinophilic granulomas about 4 mm in diameter on the mucosa just inside the nostril. The disease is thought to have an allergic origin. Called also allergic rhinitis, atopic rhinitis. See also caprine enzootic nasal granuloma.
enzootic nodular thelitis
of alpine cows in Switzerland; characterized by nodular lesions in the teat wall. See enzootic abortion of ewes.
enzootic pneumonia
a group of pneumonic diseases which affect young animals. They are principally of viral origin, although mycoplasmas also play a part, and are only mildly pathogenic unless secondary bacterial invasion intervenes. In calves parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, rhinovirus, reovirus and mycoplasmas and Chlamydophila are causes. In lambs the list of causes is the same. In pigs there is only one agent, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (syn. M. suipneumoniae). The importance of these diseases is not the wastage that they cause in their own right, although there is sometimes a significant loss of productivity and occasional cases of severe illness and even death, but the losses that occur when lethal bacterial pneumonia supervenes.
enzootic posthitis
see enzootic balanoposthitis (above).
enzootic staphylococcosis
a septicemia of lambs caused by Staphylococcus aureus; the spread of the disease is facilitated in some way by tick bites. The lambs are affected soon after birth and die quickly of septicemia or develop arthritis and meningitis later. Called also tick pyemia.
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