Proposition 5a: The recognition by the corporate entrepreneurs of high levels of envy toward them negatively affects their social interaction and exchange with the enviers, driving the corporate entrepreneurs to decrease the corporate entrepreneurial activity's levels of social embeddedness in the parent corporation.
Proposition 5b: The recognition by the corporate entrepreneurs of low levels of envy toward them positively affects their social interaction and exchange with the enviers, driving the corporate entrepreneurs to increase the corporate entrepreneurial activity's levels of social embeddedness in the parent corporation.
This was Sara's case as she observed and recognized envy and the resulting behaviors of both enviers and envied members in corporation V.
Figure 1 illustrates the emotion cycle of envy among the corporate entrepreneurs, their enviers, and the third-party observers.
The emotion cycle unfolds over time with the appraisal of the situation by the enviers and the display of their post-emotional behavior triggering (t1) a secondary appraisal process and post-emotional behavior for the envied corporate entrepreneurs (t2), resulting in the creation of a new situation that is observed by the top management (t3) influencing the cognition and behavior of the latter (t4) toward the entrepreneurial act.
The interaction rituals developed between the venturing programs members and their enviers generated a negative emotional energy or a "culture of envy" as expressed by one of the interviewees (Collins, 1990; Goss, 2005), which undermined the survivability of the programs.
The role of envy as a catalytic emotion suggests that envy in organizations might more generally lead to sensemaking that reframes the situation, to positive action which elevates the envier, or to negative action which brings down the envied person.
Consequently, workplace envy can play an important role in facilitating action by the envier that might otherwise be problematic, action which may be positive or negative with respect to the organization and its members.
The feelings of dejection and inferiority that accompany envy are rooted in the envier's acceptance of a culturally prescribed hierarchy of what is desirable and worthy (Sabini and Silver 1982).